Skip Navigation Links
Journal of Vibration Testing and System Dynamics

C. Steve Suh (editor), Pawel Olejnik (editor),

Xianguo Tuo (editor)

Pawel Olejnik (editor)

Lodz University of Technology, Poland


C. Steve Suh (editor)

Texas A&M University, USA


Xiangguo Tuo (editor)

Sichuan University of Science and Engineering, China


Large Eddy Simulation of Gas Flow Fluctuation in Tee Junction Pipes

Journal of Vibration Testing and System Dynamics 8(1) (2024) 15--31 | DOI:10.5890/JVTSD.2024.03.002

Tao Di$^{1}$, Xu Sun$^{1}$, Shun Zhou$^{2}$, Jun Xiao$^{3}$, Dongying Wang$^{2}$, Yue Shu$^{3}$, Lingren Yu$^{2}$,\\ Jiaxing Sun$^{2}$, Yuxuan Wu$^{2}$, Zifeng Yu$^{4}$, Hong Zhang$^{1}$

$^{1}$ National Engineering Laboratory for Pipeline Safety, China University of Petroleum-Beijing, Beijing, 102249,


$^{2}$ Pipe China Beijing Gas pipeline Company, Beijing, 100101, China

$^{3}$ State Key Laboratory of Compressor Technology/Compressor Technology Laboratory of Anhui Province, Hefei,

Anhui, 230031, China

$^{4}$ China Oil & Gas Pipeline Network Corp, Beijing, 100013, China

Download Full Text PDF



Gas transmission pipeline vibration is mostly caused by gas flow fluctuation, and the disturbance of the gas flow through the tee junction pipes is one of the reasons for the large gas flow fluctuation. Large Eddy simulation (LES) method is applied to gas flow fluctuation in tee junction pipes in this paper. Firstly, the models of numerical simulation and the geometric parameters are displayed, in addition to the governing equations of compressible flow in LES. Subsequently, accuracy and applicability of LES method for compressible internal flow problem are validated and the optimal subgrid-scale (SGS) model, DSM SGS model, was selected by comparing the reference values with the values calculated of each of the SGS models. Finally, to reveal how the gas flow fluctuation in tee junction pipe (or with a blind end) vary with the influencing factors, LES method and DSM SGS model are applied to simulate the flow of compressible fluid (methane) in the tee junction pipes. The influencing factors are flow velocity and branch internal diameter, and in the case of tee junction pipes with a blind end, branch length is also taken into account.


  1. [1]  Shoham, O., Brill, J.P., and Taitel, Y. (1987), Two-phase flow splitting in a tee junction---experiment and modelling, Chemical Engineering Science, 42(11), 2667-2676.
  2. [2]  Kok, J.B.W. and van der Wal, S. (1996), Mixing in T-junctions, Applied Mathematical Modelling, 20(3), 232-243.
  3. [3]  Roberts, P.A, Azzopardi, B.J., and Hibberd, S. (1997), The split of horizontal annular flow at a T-junction, Chemical Engineering Science, 52(20), 3441-3453.
  4. [4]  Riverin, J.L., de Langre E., and Pettigrew, M.J. (2006), Fluctuating forces caused by internal two-phase flow on bends and tees, Journal of Sound and Vibration, 298(4), 1088-1098.
  5. [5]  El-Shaboury, A.M.F., Soliman, H.M, and Sims, G.E. (2007) Two-phase flow in a horizontal equal-sided impacting tee junction, International Journal of Multiphase Flow, 33(4), 411-431.
  6. [6]  Frank, T., Lifante, C., Prasser, H.M., and Menter, F. (2010), Simulation of turbulent and thermal mixing in T-junctions using URANS and scale-resolving turbulence models in ANSYS CFX, Nuclear Engineering and Design, 240(9), 2313-2328.
  7. [7]  Walker, C., Manera, A., Niceno, B., Simiano, M., and Prasser, H.M. (2010), Steady-state RANS-simulations of the mixing in a T-junction, Nuclear Engineering and Design, 240(9), 2107-2115.
  8. [8]  Mohamed, M.A., Soliman, H.M., and Sims, G.E. (2011), Experimental investigation of two-phase flow splitting in an equal-sided impacting tee junction with inclined outlets, Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, 35(6), 1193-1201.
  9. [9]  Ayhan, H. and S\"{o}kmen, C.N. (2012), CFD modeling of thermal mixing in a T-junction geometry using LES model, Nuclear Engineering and Design, 253, 183-191.
  10. [10]  Sakamoto, D., Youn, C., and Kagawa, T. (2013), Pressure change in Tee branch pipe in oscillatory flow, Advances in Mechanical Engineering, 5, 257283.
  11. [11]  Lu, T., Liu, S.M., and Attinger, D. (2013), Large-eddy simulations of structure effects of an upstream elbow main pipe on hot and cold fluids mix-ing in a vertical tee junction, Annals of Nuclear Energy, 60, 420-431.
  12. [12]  Bluestein, A.M., Venters, R., Bohl, D., Helenbrook, B.T., and Ahmadi, G. (2019), Turbulent Flow Through a Ducted Elbow and Plugged Tee Geometry: An Experimental and Numerical Study, Journal of Fluids Engineering, 141(8).
  13. [13]  Baranova, T.A., Zhukova, Y.V., Chorny, A.D., Skrypnik, A., and Popov, I.A. (2021), Non-isothermal vortex flow in the T-junction pipe, Energies, 14(21), 17.
  14. [14]  Bian, J., Cao, X.W., Yang, W., Edem, M.A., Yin, P.B., and Jiang, W.M. (2018), Supersonic liquefaction properties of natural gas in the Laval nozzle, Energy, 159, 706-715.
  15. [15]  Smagorinsky, J. (1963), General circulation experiments with the primitive equations: I the basic experiment, Monthly Weather Review, 91(3), 99-164.
  16. [16]  Erlebacher, G., Hussaini, M.Y., Speziale, C.G., and Zang, T.A. (1992), Toward the large-eddy simulation of compressible turbulent flows, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 238, 155-185.
  17. [17]  Massimo, G., Piomelli, U., Moin, P., and Cabot, W.H. (1991), A dynamic subgrid‐scale eddy viscosity model, Physics of Fluids, 3(3), 1760-1765.
  18. [18]  Lilly, D.K. (1992), A proposed modification of the Germano subgrid‐scale closure method, Physics of Fluids A: Fluid Dynamics, 4(3), 633-635.
  19. [19]  Nicoud, F. and Ducros, F. (1999), Subgrid-scale stress modelling based on the square of the velocity gradient tensor, Flow, Turbulence and Combustion, 62(3), 183-200.
  20. [20]  Shur, M.L., Spalart, P.R., Strelets, M.K., and Travin, A.K.A. (2008), hybrid RANS-LES approach with delayed-DES and wall-modelled LES capabilities, International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow, 29(6), 1638-1649.