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Journal of Environmental Accounting and Management
António Mendes Lopes (editor), Jiazhong Zhang(editor)
António Mendes Lopes (editor)

University of Porto, Portugal

Email: aml@fe.up.pt

Jiazhong Zhang (editor)

School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi Province 710049, China

Fax: +86 29 82668723 Email: jzzhang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn


Simulation-Optimization Model for Dynamic and Sustainable Management of the Water Transfer Between two Interconnected Reservoirs: Case Study in Morocco

Journal of Environmental Accounting and Management 10(2) (2022) 177--190 | DOI:10.5890/JEAM.2022.06.005

Oussama Laassilia$^{1}$, Driss Ouazar$^{1}$, Ahmed Bouziane$^{1}$, Moulay Driss Hasnaoui$^{2}$

$^{1}$ Hydraulic Systems Analysis Laboratory, Mohammadia School of Engineers, Mohammed V University in Rabat, Rabat,

$ Water Department, Water Resources Division, Ministry of Equipment, Transport, Logistic and Water, Morocco

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Abstract

Interbasin Water Transfer (IBWT) is an efficient solution to balance the unequal temporal and spatial distribution of water resources, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. In this regard, this paper proposes a Simulation-Optimization model for reliability-based optimal sizing, operation, and water allocation of the Water Highway Project (WHP) in Morocco. Several scenarios were tested taking into account the impact of climate change on water resources both in the donor and the recipient basins. The results indicate that the increase in the transfer flow from the donor basin, as well as the increase in the storage capacity of the recipient reservoir, makes it possible to satisfy the water needs and develop the agricultural sector of the receiving region. This work has made it possible to maximize the profits of the WHP by valorizing the surplus water from the donor basin (Sebou) to meet the water needs of the receiving one (Bouregreg).}% [\hfill Dam Reservoir Management \par\hfill Inter-basin Water Transfer \par\hfill Simulation-Optimization model \par\hfill Water Highway Project \par\hfill Reliability][Jiazhong Zhang ][2 April 2021][5 June 2021][1 July 2022][2022 L\&H Scientific Publishing, LLC. All rights reserved.] \maketitle %\thispagestyle{fancy} \thispagestyle{firstpage} \renewcommand{\baselinestretch}{1} \normalsize \section{Introduction} Water scarcity is a major challenge on a global scale. Under the combined effects of the spatio-temporal irregularity of rainfall and the growing water needs to meet demographic pressure and to satisfy the various economic sectors (agriculture, industry, drinking water, tourism, etc.), sustainable and optimal water management is becoming a major priority (Arefin 2020). This situation is further exacerbated by the climate change impacts (Bao et al. 2019; Zhang et al. 2018-a). To address this issue, reservoirs were constructed to alleviate water shortage problems via redistributing water resources with temporal variability and spatial heterogeneity. However, local reservoirs are still not enough for areas where the demand for water outstrips the amounts that are generated within a river basin. For this purpose, inter-basin water transfer (IBWT) projects are usually considered as one of the most effective facilities to balance the non-uniform temporal and spatial distribution of water resources and water demands by diverting water from surplus to deficit areas (Ghassemi 2007; Gupta and Zaag 2008; Karamouz et al. 2010; Kibiiy and Ndambuki 2015). Water resources in Morocco are characterized by very pronounced temporal and spatial disparities (Bzioui 2011). Temporal disparities manifest themselves in variations in water resources from year to year. To address these disparities, Morocco has been equipped with large storage reservoirs for the inter-annual regulation of water. The spatial disparities are significant; three basins located in the north of the country, which cover only 7% of the total area, have 51% of the water resources (Tekken 2013). These areas have significant surpluses and much of the water resources are lost at sea during wet seasons. On the other hand, the central basins, marked by very important industrial and agricultural poles with unprecedented population growth, have an increasingly negative water balance. Following this stressful situation, Morocco has opted for a project to transfer surplus water from the Sebou basin to the deficit basin of Bouregreg basin located in its immediate south (Laassilia et al. 2019). The reservoir operations rules represent a guiding tool for managing the reservoir systems in order to satisfy the local water needs and protect the downstream from floods. For a single reservoir, suitable rule curves can be found manually by experts or through simulation models. However, the operation of a multipurpose reservoir is a challenging problem for the water resources planners and managers. Various methods to derive reservoir operation rules are described in the literature (Oliveira 1997; Panigrahi et al. 2000; Wang et al. 2018; Zhang et al. 2018-b), among which the simulation-optimization are one of the most efficient methods. According to Karamouz et al. (2003), simulation is a process of mimicking the dynamic behavior of systems over the time. It is a primary tool for proper reservoir planning and management by assessing various scenarios for different operating conditions Koutsoyiannis and Economou (2003). The simulation models adopted in reservoir operation and management are generally based on reservoir continuity or mass balance equation, and represent the hydrological behavior of the systems considering inflows and other operating conditions (Rani and Moreira, 2009). The time step of the simulation model depends upon the system characteristics being simulated and the nature of the problem being addressed. A combined optimization and simulation model has also been used in many studies. In this regard, Jain and Reddy (2005) carried out long-term simulation for an integrated operation of the reservoirs in a large IBWT system in India and finally determined the water diversion capacity of each basin. Salim (2014) studied the optimization of a multi-reservoir system in interaction with time and space by stochastic dynamic programming and simulation. Cabo et al. (2014) analyzed the design of the IBWT by using a dynamic modeling approach which relies on non-cooperative game theory, and compared solutions with different information structures (Nash open-loop, Nash feedback, and Stackelberg) with the social optimum. Manshadi et al. (2015) developed a new approach based on cooperative games and virtual water concept for quantity-quality assessment of water transfer projects. Mousavi et al. (2017) proposed a Simulation-Optimization (SO) approach for optimal operation in the Bashar-to-Zohreh inter-basin water transfer project (Iran). The SO framework linked the water evaluation and planning system (WEAP) simulation module, benefiting from fast and single-period linear programming, to the Multi-Objective Particle Swarm Optimization (MOPSO) for a multi-period optimization. Wang et al. (2018) presented two sets of joint operating rules, based on the aggregation disaggregation approach and the multi-reservoir approach respectively, in order to obtain the optimal releases of the multi-reservoir system. To assess the reliability and effectiveness of the joint operating rules, the proposed rules are applied to a multi-reservoir system in Liaoning province of China. Liu et al. (2019) developed a genetic algorithm (GA)-based optimization model to get the optimal operation of an interbasin water transfer multi-reservoir system (IWTMS). The optimization model consists of a GA and a simulation process based on a water balance equation, and was applied to a typical IWTMS in China. The results showed that the GA was effective and efficient in solving the optimization problem of IWTMSs. In light of the above, many studies have focused on the simulation and optimization of the multi-reservoir operation. However, the climate change impact on the water resources in the studied systems was not always taken into account. This aspect is very important for dynamic and sustainable IBWT systems management. For this purpose, the prime objective of this study is to analyze the behavior of the WHP in Morocco through a simulation model, with a daily time step, based on the used operations rules; and then to improve this simulation by an optimization model. Several scenarios are tested taking into account the impacts of climate change on water resources both in the donor and the receiving basins. \section{Materials and methods } \subsection{Presentation of the WHP in Morocco} The HWP consists of transferring some 45 m$^{3}$/s of water from the Garde Sebou (GS) dam (Sebou Basin) to the Sidi Mohammed Ben Abdellah (SMBA) dam (Bouregreg basin) through galleries, pipes and canals. The route of this IBWT spans approximately 53 km (Fig.1). The GS is a river dam, its built at the extreme downstream of the Sebou River to store a part of the dams' spills situated upstream, to create a lake of water for the irrigation of agricultural perimeters, and to protect the plain of Gharb against the rise of the saltwater. It is a mobile structure allowing the passage of floods (until 1800 m$^{3}$/s) without overflow thanks to 5 valves 24 m wide (Igouzal and Maslouhi 2003). Considered the main hydraulic project in the Bouregreg basin, the SMBA dam was commissioned in 1974 to ensure the domestic and industrial water supply (DIWS) to the coastal zone of Rabat - Casablanca, the most populated and most industrialized area in Morocco, and to protect the Bouregreg valley, in particular the Rabat city, against floods. It had a total capacity of 480 Mm$^{3}$, making it possible to regulate nearly 220 Mm$^{3}$/yr. After its heightening in 2007, it can store around 1025 Mm$^{3}$. The average siltation rate is estimated at 2.8 Mm$^{3}$/yr. \begin{figure

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