Skip Navigation Links
Journal of Environmental Accounting and Management
Dmitry Kovalevsky (editor), Jiazhong Zhang(editor)
Dmitry Kovalevsky (editor)

Climate Service Center Germany (GERICS), Helmholtz-Zentrum Hereon, Fischertwiete 1, 20095 Hamburg, Germany

Fax: +49 (0) 40 226338163 Email: dmitry.v.kovalevsky@gmail.com

Jiazhong Zhang (editor)

School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi Province 710049, China

Fax: +86 29 82668723 Email: jzzhang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn


Overcoming Electricity Crisis in Pakistan An Overview of the Renewable Energy Status and Development in Pakistan

Journal of Environmental Accounting and Management 5(4) (2017) 357--383 | DOI:10.5890/JEAM.2017.12.007

Syed Aziz Ur Rehman$^{1}$, Yanpeng Cai$^{1}$,$^{2}$, Mohammad Nafees$^{3}$, Gordhan Das Walasai$^{4}$,$^{6}$, Nayyar Hussain Mirjat$^{5}$,$^{6}$, Wajid Rashid$^{1}$

$^{1}$ State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China

$^{2}$ Institute for Energy, Environment and Sustainable Communities, University of Regina, Regina Saskatchewan, Canada

$^{3}$ Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Peshawar, 25000 Peshawar, Pakistan

$^{4}$ Department of Mechanical Engineering, Quaid-e-Awam University of Engineering, Science and Technology, Nawabshah, Pakistan

$^{5}$ Department of Electrical Engineering, Mehran University of Engineering and Technology, Jamshoro, Sindh, Pakistan

$^{6}$ Energy and Environmental Engineering Research Group, Mehran University of Engineering and Technology, Jamshoro, Sindh, Pakistan

Download Full Text PDF

 

Abstract

Pakistan is currently facing energy crisis in the form of electricity and natural gas load shedding due to the insufficient availability of indigenous fossil fuels. On the other hand, the country possesses huge renewable energy resources (RERs) which are merely harnessed due to lack of institutional and governmental support. This paper is designed to discuss the past and current energy demand and supply situation in the country followed by an assessment of the potential for RERs which can be harnessed for meeting energy demand of the country. An extensive literature review is undertaken in this study, focusing therein the potential of RERs in the country covering hydel, solar, wind, biomass and geothermal energy resources. It is revealed from this review that the highest potential out of all RERs exist for solar energy, i.e. 2900 GW followed by wind energy 346 GW, hydropower 100 GW and biomass energy 12.74 GW. Besides, it is observed that the highest number of ongoing potential energy projects pertain to mega hydropower generation. The research concludes that Pakistan needs to invest more and more in hydel energy and keep the pace of research and investment in the solar and wind energy as much as possible so that country indigenously self-sufficient and economically viable for all types of RERs in the long run.

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the National Key R&D Program of China (2016YFC0502209), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51522901), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities. The authors would also extend the appreciation to the anonymous reviewers and editors for their constructive comments for improving the paper.

References

  1. [1]  Ahmed, S., Mahmood, A., Hasan, A., Sidhu, G.A.S. and Butt, M.F.U. (2016), A comparative review of China, India and Pakistan renewable energy sectors and sharing opportunities, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 57, 216-225
  2. [2]  Ali, S.M.H., Zuberi, M.J.S., Tariq, M.A., Baker, D. and Mohiuddin, A. (2015), A study to incorporate renewable energy technologies into the power portfolio of Karachi, Pakistan, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 47, 14-22
  3. [3]  Amer, M. and Daim, T.U. (2011), Selection of renewable energy technologies for a developing county: A case of Pakistan, Energy for Sustainable Development 15(4), 420-435
  4. [4]  Amjad, M., Zafar, Q., Khan, F. and Sheikh, M.M. (2015), Evaluation of weather research and forecasting model for the assessment of wind resource over Gharo, Pakistan, International Journal of Climatology 35(8), 1821-1832
  5. [5]  Amjid, S.S., Bilal, M.Q., Nazir, M.S. and Hussain, A. (2011), Biogas, renewable energy resource for Pakistan, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 15(6), 2833-2837
  6. [6]  Awan, A.B. and Khan, Z.A. (2014), Recent progress in renewable energy – Remedy of energy crisis in Pakistan, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 33, 236-253
  7. [7]  Bakht, M.S. (2000), An Overview of Geothermal Resources of Pakistan. Paper presented at the World Geothermal Congress, Kyushu, Japan, May 18-June 10
  8. [8]  Bhutto, A.W., Bazmi, A.A. and Zahedi, G. (2011), Greener energy: Issues and challenges for Pakistan—Biomass energy prospective, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 15(6), 3207-3219
  9. [9]  Bhutto, A.W., Bazmi, A.A. and Zahedi, G. (2012), Greener energy: Issues and challenges for Pakistan-hydel power prospective, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 16(5), 2732-2746
  10. [10]  Bhutto, A.W., Bazmi, A.A. and Zahedi, G. (2012), Greener energy: Issues and challenges for Pakistan—Solar energy prospective, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 16(5), 2762-2780
  11. [11]  Biberacher, M., Markus, T., Sabine, G., Peter, Z., Rehmatullah, J. and Muhammad, M. (2015), Availability assessment of bioenergy and power plant location optimization: A case study for Pakistan, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 42, 700-711
  12. [12]  Butt, S., Hartmann, I. and Lenz, V. (2013), Bioenergy potential and consumption in Pakistan, Biomass and Bioenergy 58, 379-389
  13. [13]  Douggar, M.G. (1995), Energy situation in Pakistan: options and issues, Renewable Energy 6(2), 151-157
  14. [14]  Ghaffar, M.A. (1995), The energy supply situation in the rural sector of Pakistan and the potential of revewable energy technologies, Renewable Energy 6(8), 941-976
  15. [15]  Guaita-Pradas, I., Shafi-Ullah and Soucase, B.M. (2015), Sustainable Development with Renewable Energy in India and Pakista, International Journal of Renewable Energy Research, 5(2), 45-55
  16. [16]  Hassan, M. (2005), Electrification of remote coastal areas through wind-energy. In H. A. Khan, M. M. Qurashi, T. Hussain, & I
  17. [17]  Hayee (Eds.), Proceedings: renewable-energy technologies and sustainable development (pp. 161)
  18. [18]  Javaid, M.A., Hussain, S., Maqsood, A., Arshad, Z., Arshad, M.A. and Idrees, M. (2011), Electrical Energy Crisis in Pakistan and Their Possible Solutions, International Journal of Basic & Applied Sciences 11(05), 38-52
  19. [19]  Khan, H.A. and Pervaiz, S. (2013), Technological review on solar PV in Pakistan: Scope, practices and recommendations for optimized system design, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 23, 147-154
  20. [20]  Malik, S.N. and Sukhera, O.R. (2012), Management of natural gas resources and search for alternative renewable energy resources: A case study of Pakistan, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 16(2), 1282-1290
  21. [21]  Mirza, U., Ahmad, N., Majeed, T. and Harijan, K. (2007), Wind energy development in Pakistan, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 11(9), 2179-2190
  22. [22]  Mirza, U.K., Ahmad, N. and Majeed, T. (2008), An overview of biomass energy utilization in Pakistan, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 12(7), 1988-1996
  23. [23]  Mirza, U.K., Maroto-Valer, M.M. and Ahmad, N. (2003), Status and outlook of solar energy use in Pakistan, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 7(6), 501-514
  24. [24]  Muneer, T. and Asif, M. (2007), Prospects for secure and sustainable electricity supply for Pakistan, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 11(4), 654-671
  25. [25]  Nayyar, Z.A., Zaigham, N.A. and Qadeer, A. (2014), Assessment of present conventional and non-conventional energy scenario of Pakistan, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 31, 543-553
  26. [26]  Perwez, U., Sohail, A., Hassan, S.F. and Zia, U. (2015), The long-term forecast of Pakistan's electricity supply and demand: An application of long range energy alternatives planning, Energy 93, 2423-2435
  27. [27]  Raheem, A., Hassan, M.Y. and Shakoor, R. (2016). Bioenergy from anaerobic digestion in Pakistan: Potential, development and prospects, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 59, 264-275
  28. [28]  Rasheed, R., Khan, N., Yasar, A., Su, Y. and Tabinda, A.B. (2016), Design and cost-benefit analysis of a novel anaerobic industrial bioenergy plant in Pakistan, Renewable Energy 90, 242-247
  29. [29]  Rauf, O., Wang, S., Yuan, P. and Tan, J. (2015), An overview of energy status and development in Pakistan, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 48, 892-931
  30. [30]  Raza, R., Akram, N., Javed, M. S., Rafique, A., Ullah, K., Ali, A. and Ahmed, R. (2016), Fuel cell technology for sustainable development in Pakistan – An over-view, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 53, 450-461
  31. [31]  Sabir, M.A., Rehman, S.S., Umar, M., Waseem, A., Farooq, M., Fariduulah, and Irshad, M. (2014), Assessment of hydro power potential of Swat, Kohistan Himalayas: A solution for energy shortfall in region, Water Resources 41(5), 612-618
  32. [32]  Sabir, M.A., Waseem, A., Rehman, S.S., Farooq, M., Umar, M. and Khan, A.R. (2013), The Impact of Suspended Sediment Load on Reservoir Siltation and Energy Production: a Case Study of the Indus River and Its Tributaries, Polish Journal of Environmental Studies 22(1), 219-225
  33. [33]  Sadati, S.M.S., Qureshi, F.U. and Baker, D. (2015), Energetic and economic performance analyses of photovoltaic, parabolic trough collector and wind energy systems for Multan, Pakistan, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 47, 844-855
  34. [34]  Shahbaz, M., Zeshan, M. and Afza, T. (2012), Is energy consumption effective to spur economic growth in Pakistan? New evidence from bounds test to level relationships and Granger causality tests, Economic Modelling 29(6), 2310-2319
  35. [35]  Shaikh, F., Ji, Q. and Fan, Y. (2015), The diagnosis of an electricity crisis and alternative energy development in Pakistan, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 52, 1172-1185
  36. [36]  Shami, S.H., Ahmad, J., Zafar, R., Haris, M. and Bashir, S. (2016), Evaluating wind energy potential in Pakistan's three provinces, with proposal for integration into national power grid, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 53, 408-421
  37. [37]  Sheikh, M.A. (2009), Renewable energy resource potential in Pakistan, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 13(9), 2696-2702
  38. [38]  Sheikh, M.A. (2010), Energy and renewable energy scenario of Pakistan, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 14(1), 354-363
  39. [39]  Sher, H.A., Murtaza, A.F., Addoweesh, K.E. and Chiaberge, M. (2015), Pakistan’s progress in solar PV based energy generation, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 47, 213-217
  40. [40]  Uddin, W., Khan, B., Shaukat, N., Majid, M., Mujtaba, G., Mehmood, A. and Almeshal, A.M. (2016), Biogas potential for electric power generation in Pakistan: A survey, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 54, 25-33
  41. [41]  Zaigham, N.A. and Nayyar, Z.A. (2010), Renewable hot dry rock geothermal energy source and its potential in Pakistan, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 14(3), 1124-1129
  42. [42]  Zaigham, N.A., Nayyar, Z.A. and Hisamuddin, N. (2009), Review of geothermal energy resources in Pakistan, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 13(1), 223-232
  43. [43]  Zakir, M., Khetran, K., Qazi, I. and Akhter, P. (2005), Rural electrification through pv and hybrid systems in Pakistan Proceedings: renewable-energy technologies and sustainable development
  44. [44]  Zuberi, M.J.S., Hasany, S.Z., Tariq, M.A. and Fahrioglu, M. (2013), Assessment of Biomass Energy Resources Potential in Pakistan for Power Generation. Paper presented at the 4th International Conference on Power Engineering, Energy and Electrical Drives, Istanbul, Turkey, 13-17 May 2013
  45. [45]  Zuberi, M.J.S., Torkmahalleh, M.A. and Ali, S.M.H. (2015), A comparative study of biomass resources utilization for power generation and transportation in Pakistan, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 40(34), 11154-11160.