Skip Navigation Links
Journal of Environmental Accounting and Management
António Mendes Lopes (editor), Jiazhong Zhang(editor)
António Mendes Lopes (editor)

University of Porto, Portugal


Jiazhong Zhang (editor)

School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi Province 710049, China

Fax: +86 29 82668723 Email:

Ecological Restoration Assessment Based on the PSRS Model: A Case Study of Huangshui National Wetland Park

Journal of Environmental Accounting and Management 5(4) (2017) 285--301 | DOI:10.5890/JEAM.2017.12.002

Xiaojun Liu$^{1}$,$^{2}$, Xufeng Mao$^{1}$,$^{2}$, Xiaoyan Wei$^{3}$, Yaqin Tao$^{3}$, Zhifa Zhang$^{3}$, Yupeng Chen$^{1}$,$^{2}$, Xiaoxia Su$^{1}$,$^{2}$, Shuai Zhang$^{1}$,$^{2}$

$^{1}$ College of Life and Geographic Science, Qinghai Normal University, Xining 810000, China

$^{2}$ Key Laboratory of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau Resources and Environment, Xining 810000, China

$^{3}$ Huangshui National Wetland Park, Xining 810000, China

Download Full Text PDF



Effectiveness evaluation is a fundamental basis for implementing and managing wetland restoration projects. A case study was conducted in the Huangshui National Wetland Park (HNWP) in Qinghai Province to evaluate the effectiveness of the restoration project there. First, a Pressure-State-Response-Services (PSRS) model system to evaluate effectiveness was created. This consisted of 19 indicators, grouped into four broad categories: Pressure, State, Response and Services. Data for 2012 and 2016 were obtained by field investigation, lab tests, questionnaire surveys, and historical data analysis. Weights of these indicators were determined by implementing the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and consulting experts. The comprehensive health index (CHI) and restoration effectiveness (RE) were developed to allow for time-specific and region-specific evaluations of wetland restoration programme effectiveness. The results show that the restoration project has improved the health status of the HNWP: the park’s overall CHI increased from 0.319 in 2012 to 0.620 in 2016, representing a RE of 0.301. Spatial and temporal variability in the park’s CHI was observed. Spatially, the CHI values of the Haihu Wetland (region A), Xigang Wetland (region B), Huoshaogou Wetland (region C), and Ninghu Wetland (region D) were 0.629, 0.62, 0.576, and 0.581, respectively, suggesting that regions A and B were in good health while regions C and D were in fair health. In the warm season, the CHI of regions A, B, C, and D were 0.702, 0.685, 0.624, and 0.629, respectively, indicating overall good health. In the cold season, their CHI declined to 0.557, 0.555, 0.527, and 0.533, respectively, indicating fair health. A sensitivity analysis reveals that the PSRS model proposed has good applicability and is sensitive to changes in State and Services indicators. The findings of this case study are expected to provide a reference for future wetland restoration and conservation projects in Qinghai.


This work is supported by the National Key Research Projects (2016YFC0501906-01) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (51669028&51409144).


  1. [1]  Anand, M. and Desrochers, R.E. (2010), Quantification of restoration success using complex systems concepts and models, Restoration Ecology 12(1), 117-123
  2. [2]  Beijing State Forestry Administration. (2015), China wetlands resources, Qinghai Province. China Forestry Publishing House
  3. [3]  Bradshaw, A.D. (2010), Restoration ecology as a science, Restoration Ecology 1(2), 71-73
  4. [4]  Chen, L.J., Jong, Y.J., Shao, M.H., Tao, P. and Wang, T. (2017), Study on the method of ecological health evaluation of the wetland vegetation restoration area in Shuangtaizi estuary, Environment Engineering 35(2), 158-162
  5. [5]  Cui, B.S. and Liu, X.S. (1999), Review of wetland restoration studies, Advance in Earth Science 14(4), 358-364
  6. [6]  Cui, B.S. and Yang, Z.F. (2001), Research review on wetland ecosystem health, Chinese Journal of Ecology 20(3), 31-36
  7. [7]  Dai, W.H., Huang, Y. and Wu, L. (2009), Relationships between soil organic matter content(som) and pH in topsoil of zonal soils in China, Acta Pedlogica Sinica 5(1), 851-860
  8. [8]  Dong, Z.Y., Liu, D.W., Wang, Z.M., Ren, C.Y., Tang, X.G. and Jia, M.M. (2013), Wetlands of priority restoration in northeast China based on spatial analysis, Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology 24(1), 170-176
  9. [9]  Du, Y.G., Cui, X.Y., Xu, Q.M., Han, D.R., Guo, X.W., Cao, G.M. (2012), Spatial characteristics of soil organic matter and as content in source regions of Yangtze River and Yellow River, Chinese Journal of Grassland 34(5), 24-29
  10. [10]  Duan, W.J., Wang, J.Y. and Li, H.F. (2014), Hydrological effect of three typical ecological restoration models on degraded ecosystem in south China., Journal of Central South University of Forestry & Technology 5, 51-55
  11. [11]  Fan, Y., Wu, W. and Liu, H.B. (2007), Study of the variations in the distribution of soil heavy matals and soil physico-chemical properties and their correlation - a case study of Zheng'An County of Guizhou Province, Journal of Southwest China Normal University (Natural Science) 32(4), 58-63
  12. [12]  Gao, Y.H., Wang, H.Q. and Liu, Q.J. (2003), Advances in assessment of ecological restoration, JiangXi Science 21(3), 168-174
  13. [13]  Guo, F.M. and Cheng, J.H. (1997), Study on inspection to determine unanimity of the matrix in a level analysis method and deviation correction method, China Geology & Mining Economics, 7, 19-24
  14. [14]  Hakanson, L. (1980), An ecological risk index for aquatic pollution control. a sedimentological approach, Water Research 14(8), 975- 1001
  15. [15]  Hao, J., Guo, D.G., Shangguan, T.L., Liu, W.H., Zhang, J. ang Zhang, P.P. (2016), Ecological performance assessment on early plant reclamation in coal gangue yard, Acta Ecologica Sinica 36(7), 1946-1958
  16. [16]  Hua, G.C., Li, Y.L., Huang, C.Y., Liang, C. and Wang, J. (2005), Study on the assess index system of the ecological restoration to the Lalu wetland in Tibet, Journal of Sichuan University 37(6), 20-25
  17. [17]  Huang, F.C. (2015), Studies on revegetation and restoration of gold and copper wasteland in Zijin Mountain, Journal of Fujian Forestry Science and Techology 3, 74-80
  18. [18]  Jia, H., Ma, H. and Wei, M. (2011), Urban wetland planning, A case study in the Beijing central region, Ecological Complexity 8(2), 213-221
  19. [19]  Lake, P.S. (2010), On the maturing of restoration, Linking ecological research and restoration, Ecological Management & Restoration 2(2), 110-115
  20. [20]  Li, D.S., Luo, D., Shi, Z.M., Tang, J.C., Liu, S.R. and Liu, Q.L. (2014), Assessing effects of cupressus chengiana plantations in the dry valley of Zagunao River, Li county of Sichuan Province, Acta Ecological Sinica 34(9), 2338-2346
  21. [21]  Liu, S., Jiang, J., Liu, Z.J., Guo, X.J. and Wang, J.B. (2014), Effect of slope ecological protection measures in northern Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous region—taking canal program in western part of karamay in Huangqiba section in Xijiang Region as a case study, Bulletin of Soil and Water Conservation 5, 51-55
  22. [22]  Liu, Y.B., Zhan, D.Y., Zhang, Y.C., Shi, M.M., Shan, Z.Y. and He, Lei. (2016), Evaluation of restoration effect in degraded alpine meadow under different regulation measures, Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering 32(24), 268-275
  23. [23]  Liu, Y.X., Xu, G., Jiang, H.Y., Hu, X.X. (2015), Synergy between ecosystem services and ecosystem health in the forest area of northeast China, Progress in Geography 34(6), 761-771
  24. [24]  Lv, G., Liu, Y.Z., Li, Y.X., Fu, X.Y. and Song, Z.L. (2017), Evaluation of soil hydrology effects of the vegetation restoration in Haizhou open-pit coal mine dump, Ecology and Environment Science 26(1), 67-72
  25. [25]  Ma, G.R. (2016), Evaluation of important wetland ecosystems in China. Science Press
  26. [26]  Mai, S.Z., Xu, S.J. and Pang, Y.J. (2005), Application of the PSR model to the evaluation of wetland ecosystem health, Tropical Geography 25(4), 317-321
  27. [27]  Mao, X.F., Wang, X.W., Wei, X.Y. and Chen, Q. (2014), A PSR-framework-based health assessment of the Ulansuhai Lake in China, Journal of Environmental Studies 23(6), 2093-2102
  28. [28]  Ministry of Environmental Protection of the People's Republic of China. (1990), Background value of soil element in China. China Environmental Science Press, Beijing
  29. [29]  Ministry of Environmental Protection of the People's Republic of China. (2011), HJ623~2011. Standard for the assessment of regional biodiversity. China Environmental Science Press, Beijing
  30. [30]  National soil survey office. (1992), Chinese soil survey technology. Agriculture Press, Beijing
  31. [31]  Ning, Q.Y., Tang, L.Y., Li, Y.H., Mo, Z.N., Liu, L. and He, BY. (2015), Research of evaluation system for coastal vegetation ecological restoration project - a case study of Shijiao, Guangxi, Anhui Agricultural Sciences 7, 279-281
  32. [32]  Ouyang, N.L. (2012), Wetland recoverability evaluation in sub-humid and semi-arid area. Chang Sha, Central south University
  33. [33]  Peng, J., Wang, Y.L., Wu, J.S. and Zhang, Y.Q. (2007), Evaluation for regional ecosystem health, methodology and research progress, Acta Ecologica Sinica 27(11), 4877-4885
  34. [34]  Qian, Y.F., Lou, Y., Chu, Y.X., Liu, J. and Hu, J.J. (2016), Ecosystem evaluation of international important wetlands in Dongting Lake, Wetland Science 14(4), 516-523
  35. [35]  Rapport, D.J. and Friend, A. (1979), Towards a comprehensive framework for environmental statistics, a stress-response approach Ottawa, Statistics Canada
  36. [36]  Ren, X.Y. and Wu, S.J. (2007), A comprehensive evaluation of Honghu wetland, Management of Land and Resources 24(5), 95-99
  37. [37]  Rong, H., He, J.L., Shan, D., Liu, Y.P. and Liang, Z.Q. (2016), Effects of vegetation restoration methods on soil and water conservation of degraded grassland in Xilinhe River watershed, Grassland and Turf 36(5), 52-57
  38. [38]  State Environmental Protection Administration (SEPA) of China. (2002), Environmental quality standards for surface water (GB3838-2002). China Environmental Science Press, Beijing
  39. [39]  State Forestry Bureau. (2000), China national wetlands conservation action plan. China Forestry Publishing House
  40. [40]  Wu, H.J. and Wang, X.L. (2006), Progresses of evaluation of wetlands ecological restoration effects in China, Wetland Science 4(4), 304-310
  41. [41]  Wu, W.J., Cha, T.G. and Zhang, Z.Q. (2017), Effects of revegetation approach and terrain on plant species diversity as a result of converting croplands to forests in the Loess region of western Shanxi Province, Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology 28(4), 1121- 1127
  42. [42]  Xu, X.B., Zhao, J., Li, S.Q. and Peng, K.S. (2005), Restricted factors in ecological recovery in western area and the selection of evaluation index, Research of Soil and Water Conservation 12(6), 42-45
  43. [43]  Xu, Z.Q. (2008), Calculation of heavy metals toxicity coefficient in the evaluation of potential ecological risk index, Environmental Science & Technology 31(2), 112-115
  44. [44]  Xue, L., Zhao, Z.B. and Yan, J.P. (2008), Study on biotope structure and evaluation for the Bahe wetland birds in Xian city, Journal of Arid Land Resource and Environment 116-119
  45. [45]  Yu, F., Zhou, H. and Xu, S.L. (2009), Progresses of environmental effect evaluation on ecological restoration, Ecology and Environment Science 18(1), 374-379.