Skip Navigation Links
Journal of Environmental Accounting and Management
Dmitry Kovalevsky (editor), Jiazhong Zhang(editor)
Dmitry Kovalevsky (editor)

Climate Service Center Germany (GERICS), Helmholtz-Zentrum Hereon, Fischertwiete 1, 20095 Hamburg, Germany

Fax: +49 (0) 40 226338163 Email:

Jiazhong Zhang (editor)

School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi Province 710049, China

Fax: +86 29 82668723 Email:

Wastewater Management Policies for Nuclear Power Plants and its Implementation in China

Journal of Environmental Accounting and Management 4(4) (2016) 423--440 | DOI:10.5890/JEAM.2016.12.006

Xiaowen Ding$^{1}$,$^{2}$, Guihong Jiang$^{1}$, Baodeng Hou$^{3}$, Ying Xue$^{1}$

$^{1}$ Key Laboratory of Regional Energy and Environmental Systems Optimization, Ministry of Education, North China Electric Power University, Beijing102206, China

$^{2}$ Institute for Energy, Environment and Sustainable Communities, University of Regina, Saskatchewan S4S 7H9, Canada

$^{3}$ State Key Laboratory of Simulation and Regulation of Water Cycle in River Basin, China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research, Beijing 100038, China

Download Full Text PDF



To deal with the global climate change and energy shortage, nuclear power has been widely used all over the world for its low carbon emission and economic cost. Nowadays, hundreds of nuclear power plants have been constructed in many countries. However, the operation of them discharged radioactive effluents and non-radioactive wastewater into nearby water bodies, which makes wastewater management policies for such plants crucial. The objective of this study is to summarize laws, regulations and technical standards of major countries with nuclear power plants, and advance wastewater management of nuclear power plants for China. This article summarized the laws, regulations and technical standards of wastewater management for the plants in major countries with nuclear power plants as well as International Atomic Energy Agency. The management in China, including management process, authorities, public participation as well as emergency system, was also proposed considering that plenty of coastal nuclear power plants had been built, and several inland ones were taken into account. Furthermore, case study was developed for Tianwan nuclear power plant which lied in East Coast of China and had been operated for ten years. The results may provide the managers of nuclear power plants around the world a policy reference and a decision support in the field of wastewater management.


Xiaowen Ding was responsible for the summary of the laws, regulations and technical standards on wastewater discharge of nuclear power plants throughout the world. Guihong Jiang proposed wastewater management system for nuclear power plants in China. Baodeng Hou analysed the laws, regulations and technical standards on wastewater discharge of nuclear power plants throughout the world. Ying Xue processed the data and drew the figures. This article isn’t under simultaneous consideration by any other publisher and haven’t been published elsewhere in substantially similar form. The authors declare no conflict of interest. This research work was funded by National Natural Science Foundation of China (51309097), the National key scientific and technological projects of the PRC (2014ZX07104-005) and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of PRC. The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support of the programs and agencies.


  1. [1]  Aravind, P., Subramanyan, V., Ferro, S. and Gopalakrishnan, R. (2016), Eco-friendly and facile integrated biological-cum-photo assisted electrooxidation process for degradation of textile wastewater, Water Research 93, 230-241.
  2. [2]  Biasiotto, G., Zanella, I., Masserdotti, A., Pedrazzani, R., Papa, M. and Caimi, L. (2016), Municipal wastewater affects adipose deposition in male mice and increases 3t3-l1 cell differentiation, Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 297, 32-40.
  3. [3]  Boy, G.A., Gopal, J., Manera, A., Memmott, M., Petrovic, B. and Rayad, Y. (2016), Improving collaborative work and project management in a nuclear power plant design team: A Human-Centered Design Approach, Annals of Nuclear Energy 94, 555-565.
  4. [4]  CSA (1987), CAN/CSA-N288 1-M87 Guidelines for Calculating Derived Release Limits for Radioactive Material in Airborne and Liquid Effluents for Normal Operation of Nuclear Facilities.
  5. [5]  Dang, T., Wang, T.H., Li, C.W. and Choo, K.H. (2015), Comparison of low-pressure reverse osmosis filtration and polyelectrolyteenhanced ultrafiltration for the removal of Co and Sr from nuclear plant wastewater, Separation and Purification Technology 157, 209-214.
  6. [6]  Deutsches Institut für Normung (1979), Measuring Liquid Radioactive Materials for Monitoring; Radioactive Discharges.
  7. [7]  Dvorzhak, A., Mora, J.C. and Robles, B. (2016), Probabilistic risk assessment from potential exposures to the public applied for innovative nuclear installations, Reliability Engineering and System Safety 152, 176-186.
  8. [8]  Electricite De France, Framatome (1991), Rules for Design and Construction of 900MW Pressurized Water Reactor Nuclear Power Plants System.
  9. [9]  EPA (2010), 40 CFR Part 122 Administrative Practice and Procedure Confidential Business Information Hazardous Substances Reporting and Recordkeeping Requirements Water Pollution Control.
  10. [10]  EPA (2009), 40 CFR Part 423 Electric Power Plants Reporting and Recordkeeping Requirements Waste Treatment and Disposal Water Pollution Control.
  11. [11]  General Administration of Quality Supervision (2002), GB/T18920-2002 Reuse of Municipal Wastewater and Water Quality of Municipal Miscellaneous Water.
  12. [12]  Ghisellini, P. and Casazza, M. (2016), Evaluating the energy sustainability of urban agriculture towards more resilient urban systems, Journal of Environmental Accounting and Management 4(2), 175-193.
  13. [13]  Hairet, T., Wang, W., Li, Y. and Li, S. (2014), Assessment of water ecological carrying capacity based on ecological network structure, Journal of Environmental Accounting and Management 2(4), 335-345.
  14. [14]  Hanslík, E., Ivanovová, D., Juranová, E., Šimonek, P. and Jedináková, K.V. (2009), Monitoring and assessment of radionuclide discharges from Temelín nuclear power plant into the Vltava River (Czech Republic), Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 100(100), 131-138.
  15. [15]  Hesslerová, P., Pokorný, J. and Semerádová, S. (2016), The retention ability of the agricultural landscape in the emergency planning zone of the Temelin Nuclear Power Plant and its changes since the 19th century, Land Sse Policy 55, 13-23.
  16. [16]  Loisel, R. (2012), Power system flexibility with electricity storage technologies: A technical–economic assessment of a large-scale storage facility, International Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems 42(1), 542-552.
  17. [17]  Marvuglia, A., Hild, P., Schmitt, B. and Benetto, E. (2016), Application of cluster analysis and development of a lifecycle environmental performance indicator to categorise construction materials, Journal of Environmental Accounting and Management 4(1), 1-11.
  18. [18]  MEP (1988), GB9135-1988 the Technical Rules about Radioactive Waste Processing System for Light Water Reactor Plants.
  19. [19]  MEP (1989), GB11217-1989 the General Regulation for Monitoring Effluents in Nuclear Facilities.
  20. [20]  MEP (1996), GB8978-1996 Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard.
  21. [21]  MEP (2006), Order [2006] No. 28 Tentative Procedures of Public Participation in Environmental Impact Assessment.
  22. [22]  MEP (2011), GB6249-2011 Regulations for Environment Radiation Protection of Nuclear Power Plants.
  23. [23]  MEP (2011), GB14587-2011Technical Requirements for Discharge of Radioactive Liquid Effluents from Nuclear Power Plants.
  24. [24]  NRC (1991), 10 CFR Part 20 Standards for Protection against Radiation.
  25. [25]  NRC (1995), 10 CFR Part 50 Domestic Licensing of Production and Utilization Facilities.
  26. [26]  NRC (1998), Regulatory Guide 4.7 General Site Suitability Criteria for Nuclear Power Stations.
  27. [27]  Nuclear Safety Authority (2006), ACT No. 2006-686 on Transparency and Security in the Nuclear Field.
  28. [28]  Pattupara, R., Kannan, R. and Yan, J. (2016), Alternative low-carbon electricity pathways in Switzerland and it’s neighbouring countries under a nuclear phase-out scenario, Applied Energy 172, 152-168.
  29. [29]  IAEA (1989), Operational Safety of Nuclear Installations.
  30. [30]  IAEA (1989), Regulatory Control of Radioactive Discharges to the Environment.
  31. [31]  IAEA (1994), Convention on Nuclear Safety.
  32. [32]  IAEA (2000), Dispersion of Radioactive Material in Air and Water and Consideration of Population.
  33. [33]  IAEA (2002), Distribution in Site Evaluation for Nuclear Power Plants.
  34. [34]  IAEA (2002), Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency.
  35. [35]  IAEA (2008), Radiation Protection and Radioactive Waste Management in the Design.
  36. [36]  IAEA (2009), Operation of Research Reactors.
  37. [37]  IAEA (2009), Predisposal Management of Radioactive Waste.
  38. [38]  IAEA (2011), Disposal of Radioactive Waste.
  39. [39]  IAEA (2014), Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources: International Basic Safety Standards.
  40. [40]  ITRMF (1974), Decree No.74-1181 Concerning Discharges of Liquid Radioactive Effluents from Nuclear Installations.
  41. [41]  ITRMF (1995), No. 95-540 Law on the Discharge of Radioactive Liquid and Gas Effluents by Nuclear Facilities.
  42. [42]  Scherb, H., Kusmierz, R. and Voigt, K. (2016), Human sex ratio at birth and residential proximity to nuclear facilities in France, Reproductive Toxicology 60, 104-111.
  43. [43]  Sugiura, Y., Shibata, M., Ogata, Y., Ozawa, H., Kanasashi, T. and Takenaka, C. (2016), Evaluation of radiocesium concentrations in new leaves of wild plants two years after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 160, 8-24.
  44. [44]  The President of the People’s Republic of China (2003), The Environmental Impact Assessment Law of the People’s Republic of China.
  45. [45]  The President of the People’s Republic of China (2002), Water Law of PRC.
  46. [46]  USC (2011), The Federal Water Pollution Control Act.
  47. [47]  Zhao, L.J., Zeng, W.H., Zhang, J.R., Wang, J.N. and Jiang, H.Q. (2015), Evaluation method for science and technology performance on energy conservation and emission reduction, Journal of Environmental Accounting and Management 3(3), 285-297.