Skip Navigation Links
Journal of Environmental Accounting and Management
António Mendes Lopes (editor), Jiazhong Zhang(editor)
António Mendes Lopes (editor)

University of Porto, Portugal


Jiazhong Zhang (editor)

School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi Province 710049, China

Fax: +86 29 82668723 Email:

Failure Mode and Effect Analysis and Analytic Hierarchical Process Applied for Reduction of Environmental Risk in Supplier Selection to Thermoplastic Industry

Journal of Environmental Accounting and Management 10(1) (2022) 73--89 | DOI:10.5890/JEAM.2022.03.007

Flavia Cristina da Silva$^{1}$, Fabio Ytoshi Shibao$^{1}$, Andre Felipe Henriques Librantz$^{2,3}$, Geraldo Cardoso de Oliveira Neto$^{3}$ , Lincoln Nagaki$^{3}$

$^1$ Environmental Management and Sustainability Graduate Program, Universidade Nove de Julho, Rua Vergueiro, 235/249 -- 12 Floor, zip code: 01504-001, Liberdade, Sao Paulo, Brazil

$^{2}$ Informatics and Knowledge Management Graduate Program, Universidade Nove de Julho, Rua Vergueiro, 235/249 -- 12 Floor, zip code: 01504-001, Liberdade, Sao Paulo, Brazil

$^{3}$ Industrial Engineering Graduate Program, Universidade Nove de Julho, Rua Vergueiro, 235/249 -- 12 Floor, zip code: 01504-001, Liberdade, S\~{a}o Paulo, Brazil

Download Full Text PDF



Risk management has become a key issue for managing the green supply chain due to fact that the multi-risk and human judgment-based factors always involve subjectivity and ambiguity. Thus, Failure Mode Effects Analysis combined to Analytic Hierarchical Process was proposed for risk reduction in the selection process of suppliers of the green supply chain, providing flexibility and robustness in decision-making process. The tool was applied in the selection of flexographic solvent suppliers in an industry of the thermoplastic components segment and cold starting subsystems for the automotive industry, offering the opportunities for improvement in the monitoring supplier's performance.


The authors would like to thank the Uninove for the support.


  1. [1]  AIAG. Automotive Industry Action Group (2008), FMEA - Potential Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (4th ed.), AIAG.
  2. [2]  Almannai, B., Greenough, R., and Kay, J. (2008), A decision support tool based on QFD and FMEA for the selection of manufacturing automation technologies, Robotics and Computer Integrated Manufacturing, 24, 501-507.
  3. [3]  Amin, S.H. and Razmi, J. (2009), An integrated fuzzy model for supplier management: A case study of ISP selection and evaluation, Expert Systems with Applications, 36, 8639-8648.
  4. [4]  Badurdeen, F., Shuaib, M., Wijekoon, K., Brown, A., and Faulkner, W. (2014), Quantitative modeling and analysis of supply chain risks using Bayesian Theory, Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, 25, 631-654.
  5. [5]  Carr., A.S., Kaynak, H., Hartley, J.L., and Ross, A. (2008), Supplier dependence: Impact on supplier's participation and performance. International Journal of Operations $\&$ Production Management, 28(9), 899-916.
  6. [6]  Chen, P.-S., and Wu, M.-T. (2013), A modified failure mode and effects analysis method for supplier selection problems in the supply chain risk environment: A case study, Computers and Industrial Engineering, 66(4), 634-642.
  7. [7]  Chin, K.-S., Wang, Y.-M., Poon, G.K.K., and Yang, J.-B. (2009), Failure mode and effects analysis using a group-based evidential reasoning approach, Computers $\&$ Operational Research, 36(6), 1768-1779.
  8. [8]  de Paoli, F.M., de Oliveira Neto, G.C., and Lucato, W.C. (2013), Economic and environmental gains resulting from the utilization of the design for the environment (DfE), Vantagens econ\^{o}micas e ambientais resultantes da aplica\c{c}\~{a}o do projeto para o meio ambiente (DfE) Espacios, 34(12), 11.
  9. [9]  Ebrahimipour, V., Rezaie, K., and Shokravi, S. (2010), An ontology approach to support FMEA studies, Expert Systems With Applications, 37(1), 671-677.
  10. [10]  EEC. European Economic Community. (1993), Principles for the risk assessment to human and the environment by substances notified in accordance with Directive 67/548/EEC.
  11. [11]  Geum, Y., Cho, Y., and Park, Y. (2011), A systematic approach for diagnosing service failure: Service-specific FMEA and grey relational analysis approach, Mathematical and Computer Modelling, 54, 3126-3142
  12. [12]  Giannakis, M. and Louis, M. (2011), A multi-agent based framework for supply chain risk management, Journal of Purchasing and Supply Management, 17(1), 23-31.
  13. [13]  Guimar\~{a}es, C.M. and Carvalho, J.C. (2012), Outsourcing in Continuing Care - A Risk Management Approach, Ci\^{encia E Saude Coletiva}, 17(5), 1179-1190
  14. [14]  Hallikas, J., Karonen, I., Pulkkine, U., Viroleinen, V.M., and Tuominen, M. (2004), Risk management processes in supplier networks. International Journal of Production Economics, 90(1), 47-58.
  15. [15]  Ho, J.C., Shalishali, M.K., Tseng, T.-L., and Ang, D.S. (2009), Opportunities in green supply chain management, The Coastal Business Journal, 8(1), 18-31.
  16. [16]  Ho, W., Xu, X., and Dey, P.K. (2010), Multi-criteria decision making approaches for supplier evaluation and selection: A literature review. European Journal of Operational Research, 202(1), 16-24.
  17. [17]  Jabbour, A.B.L.S., and Jabbour, C.J C. (2009), Are supplier selection criteria going green? Case studies of companies in Brazil, Industrial Management $\&$ Data Systems, 109(4), 477-495.
  18. [18]  Kerzner, H. (2009), Project management: a systems approach to planning, scheduling, and controlling. 10 th. New Jersey: J. W. & Sons, Ed.
  19. [19]  Kumar, S., Boice, B.C., and Shepherd, M.J. (2013), Risk assessment and operational approaches to manage risk in global supply chains, Transportation Journal, 52(3), 391-411.
  20. [20]  Kuo, T.C. and Chu, C.H. (2013), Risk management of hazardous substances in selection of green suppliers, International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing, 14(6), 1057-1063.
  21. [21]  Lawrence, D.P. (2007a), Impact significance determination -- Back to basics, Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 27, 755-769.
  22. [22]  Lawrence, D.P. (2007b), Impact significance determination -- Designing an approach, Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 27, 730-754.
  23. [23]  Lawrence, D.P. (2007c), Impact significance determination -- Pushing the boundaries, Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 27, 770-788.
  24. [24]  Leopold, L.B. (1971), A procedure for evaluating environmental impact, US Dept. of the Interior, 28(2).
  25. [25]  Liu, H.-C., Liu, L., and Liu, N. (2013), Risk evaluation approaches in failure mode and effects analysis: A literature review, Expert Systems with Applications, 40, 828-838.
  26. [26]  Mangla, S.K., Kumar, P., and Barua, M.K. (2015), Risk analysis in green supply chain using fuzzy AHP approach: a case study, Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 104, 375-390.
  27. [27]  Manuj, I. and Mentzer, J.T. (2008), Global supply chain risk management strategies, International Journal of Physical Distribution and Logistics Management, 38(3), 192 - 223.
  28. [28]  Mentzer, J.T., De Witt, W., Keebler, J.S., Min, S., Nix, N.W., Smith, C.D., and Zacharia, Z.G. (2001), Defining supply chain management, Journal of Business Logistics, 22(2), 1-25.
  29. [29]  Morris, P. and Therivel, R. (2009), Methods of Environmental Impact Assessment (3rd ed., p. 560). New York.
  30. [30]  Neto, G.C.O., Oliveira, J.C., and Librantz, A.F.H. (2017), Selection of Logistic Service Providers for the transportation of refrigerated goods, Production Planning and Control, 1, 1-16
  31. [31]  Nepal, B. and Yadav, O.P. (2015), Bayesian belief network-based framework for sourcing risk analysis during supplier selection, International Journal of Production Research, 53(20), 1-22.
  32. [32]  Pillay, A. and Wang, J. (2003), Modified failure mode and effects analysis using approximate reasoning, Reliability Engineering and System Safety, 79(1), 69-85.
  33. [33]  Olson, D.L. and Swenseth, S.R (2014), Trade-offs in Supply Chain System Risk Mitigation, Behavioral Science, 31(4), p-1-21.
  34. [34]  Saaty, R.W. (1987), The analytic hierarchy process - what it is and how it is used, Math Modelling, 9(3), 161-176.
  35. [35]  Saaty, T.L. and Vargas, L.G. (2001), Models, methods, concepts and applications of the analytic hierarchy process. Boston: K. A. Publishers, Ed.
  36. [36]  Saaty, T.L. (2008), Decision making with the analytic hierarchy process, International Journal of Services Sciences, 1, 83-98.
  37. [37]  Sarkis, J. (2003), A strategic decision framework for green supply chain management, Journal of Cleaner Production, 11, 397-409.
  38. [38]  Scannell1, T.V., Curkovic, S., Wagner, B.J., and Vitek, M.J. (2013), Supply Chain Risk Management within the Context of COSO's, Enterprise Risk Management Framework, 2(1), 15-28.
  39. [39]  Schoenherr, T., Tummala, V.R., and Harrison, T.P. (2008), Assessing supply chain risks with the analytic hierarchy process: Providing decision support for the offshoring decision by a US manufacturing company, Journal of Purchasing and Supply Management, 1(1), 1-22.
  40. [40]  Sharma, S. and Pophaley, M. (2012), Applying AFMEA for improving the performance of complex production processes, The IUP Jounal of Supply Chain Management, 9(1), 7-21.
  41. [41]  Srinivasan, M., Mukherjee, D., and Gaur, A.S. (2011), Buyer-supplier partnership quality and supply chain performance: moderating role of risks, and environmental uncertainty, European Management Journal, 29(4), 260-271.
  42. [42]  Tay, K.M. and Lim, C.P. (2006), Fuzzy FMEA with a guided rules reduction system for prioritization of failures, International Journal of Quality and Reliability Management, 23(8),1047-1066.
  43. [43]  Teng, S.G., Ho, S.M., Shumar, D., and Liu, P.C. (2006), Implementing FMEA in a collaborative supply chain environment. International Journal of Quality and Reliability Management, 23(2), 179-196.
  44. [44]  Thun, J.H. and Hoenig, D. (2009), An empirical analysis of supply chain risk management in the German automotive industry, International Journal of Production Economics, 131(1), 242-249.
  45. [45]  Tuncel, G. and Alpan, G. (2010), Risk Assessment and management for supply chain networks: A case study, Computers in Industry, 61(3), 250-259.
  46. [46]  Welborn, C. (2010), Applying failure mode and effects analysis to supplier selection, The IUP Journal of Supply Chain Management, 7(3), 7-14.
  47. [47]  Wu, F., Yeniyurt, S., Kim, D., and Cavusgil, S.T. (2006), The impact of information technology on supply chain capabilities and firm performance: A resource-based view, Industrial Marketing Management, 35(4), 493-504.
  48. [48]  Zhang, H., Dong Y., Palomares-Carrascosa, I., and Zhou, H. (2020), Personalized individual semantics-based approach for linguistic failure modes and effects analysis with incomplete preference information, IISE Transactions, 52(11), 1275-1296.
  49. [49]  Zhang, H., Dong Y., Palomares-Carrascosa, I., and Zhou, H. (2019), Failure mode and effect analysis in a linguistic context: A consensus-based multi-attribute group decision-making approach, IEEE Transactions on Reliability, 68(2), 566-582.
  50. [50]  Zhu, Q., Sarkis, J., and Geng, Y. (2005), Green supply chain management in China? pressures, practices and performance, International Journal of Operations and Production Management, 25(5), 449-468.