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Journal of Environmental Accounting and Management
António Mendes Lopes (editor), Jiazhong Zhang(editor)
António Mendes Lopes (editor)

University of Porto, Portugal


Jiazhong Zhang (editor)

School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi Province 710049, China

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Effect of Fear on Interacting Species Dynamics with Nonlinear Predator Harvesting

Journal of Environmental Accounting and Management 9(4) (2021) 403--427 | DOI:10.5890/JEAM.2021.12.006

Lakshmi Narayan Guin$^{1}$, Ayantika Mapa$^{1}$, Santabrata Chakravarty$^{2}$

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The present pursuit concerns itself with an updated real predator-prey system based on a fear factor induced by interacting species with nonlinear predator harvesting unlike constant or linear harvesting. The diversification of system parameters gives rise to different categories of system dynamics. The system under consideration does experience bifurcation (saddle-node, transcritical and Hopf-Andronov) about the co-existence equilibrium position with respect to the choice of fear factor or nonlinear harvesting factor as a parameter of significance. The direction of the Hopf bifurcation together with the stability of the bifurcating periodic solutions are perceived through an explicit algorithm duly established by making use of the normal form and central manifold theory. The findings of the present investigation reveal that the fear factor or nonlinear harvesting factor bears the potential to influence the dynamical scenario of the interacting species remarkably.


The authors would like to communicate their sincere appreciation to the anonymous referee for helpful remarks that will help to improve the quality of the paper. The first author gratefully acknowledges the financial support in part from Special Assistance Programme (SAP-III) sponsored by the University Grants Commission (UGC), New Delhi, India (Grant No. F.$510$ / $3$ / DRS-III / $2015$ (SAP-I)).


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