Skip Navigation Links
Journal of Environmental Accounting and Management
António Mendes Lopes (editor), Jiazhong Zhang(editor)
António Mendes Lopes (editor)

University of Porto, Portugal


Jiazhong Zhang (editor)

School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi Province 710049, China

Fax: +86 29 82668723 Email:

The Gasification Of Biomass: A Dynamic 3-D Coupling Study in Euler-Lagrange Discrete Element Methods (DEM)

Journal of Environmental Accounting and Management 9(2) (2021) 93--110 | DOI:10.5890/JEAM.2021.06.001

Tamer M. Ismail$^{1,2}$ , Lu Ding$^{1,3}$, Khaled Ramzy$^2$, M. Abd El-Salam$^4$

$^1$ Institute of Clean Coal Technology, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237, PR China

$^2$ Mechanical Engineering Department, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt

$^3$ Shanghai Institute of Pollution Control and Ecological Security, Shanghai 200092, P.R. China

$^4$ Department of Basic Science, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt

Download Full Text PDF



The objective of this study is to understand the different phenomena related to the gasification of biomass in dense fluidized bed. It is interested, initially, in the phenomenological characterization of a dense shallow fluidized bed to evaluate the validity domain of the simulation tool used. A coupled transfers of a quasi-3-D system was studied to identify the most influential reaction mechanisms which best translated the gasification of the biomass. The gaseous phase was modeled as a continuum (Navier-Stokes), and the solid phase was processed via the discrete element method (DEM), including a collisional model called ``soft spheres". For this, it was relied upon a basic combustion reaction mechanism including both homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions in order to visualize the evolution of the diameter and density of biomass particles. This was with the aim to evaluate the effects and taking into account the coupling including mass transfer from the chemical model, heat transfer by providing gas heat input, and with the hydrodynamic transport particles entrained by the gas velocity. Among the results obtained, it was found the main characteristics of the dynamics of the bed both chemically and hydrodynamically. By comparison between experimental and simulated results, it can be obtained a little shift between the two signals, which was explained by measurement uncertainties, and the most important was the particle diameter measure (with 33% of possible error). Taking into account these uncertainties, the obtained quantitative values was in good agreement. Finally, the results from simulations were consistent with respect to chemical mechanisms implemented and the respect of the initial conditions considering the size and particle density evolution. Through parametric studies, a 3-D constitutive laws for dense fluidized beds at larger scale and a more detail study of biomass gasification to compare and validate data from the literature were developed.


This work was supported by the Belt & Road Young Scientist Exchange Project Supported by Fund of Shanghai Science and Technology Committee (project code: 20230742400).


  1. [1]  Alamsyah, R., Loebis, E.H., Susanto, E., Junaidi, L., Siregar, N.H. (2015), An Experimental Study on Synthetic Gas (Syngas) Production through Gasification of Indonesian Biomass Pellet, Energy Procedia, Vol. 65, pp. 292-299.
  2. [2]  Andersen, J., Rasmussen, C.L., Giselsson, T., and Glarborg, P. (2009), Global Combustion Mechanisms for Use in CFD Modeling under Oxy-Fuel Conditions, Energy Fuels, vol. 23(3), pp. 13791389.
  3. [3]  Baskakov, A.P., Tuponocov, V.G. and Fillippovsky, N.F. (1986), A study of pressure fluctuations in a bubbling fluidized bed, Powder Technology, vol. 45, pp. 113-117.
  4. [4]  Budhathoki, R. (2013), Three zone modeling of Downdraft biomass Gasification: Equilibrium and finite Kinetic Approach.
  5. [5]  Chan, Shih Hung, ed (1996), Transport Phenomena in combustion. Vol. 1. Taylor & Francis.
  6. [6]  Bzowski, J., Kestin, J., Mason, E.A. and Uribe, F.J. (1990), Equilibrium and Transport Properties of Gas Mixtures at Low Density: Eleven Polyatomic Gases and Five Noble Gases, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, vol. 19(5), pp. 1179.
  7. [7]  Commeh, M.K, Kemausuor, F., Badger, E.N. and Osei, I. (2019), Experimental study of ferrocement downdraft gasifier engine system using different biomass feedstocks in Ghana, Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments, Vol. 31, pp. 124-131.
  8. [8]  Cundall, P.A. and Strack, O.D.L. (1979), A Discrete Numerical Model for Granular Assemblies, Geotechnique, vol. 29, pp. 47-65.
  9. [9]  Dan, S., Jianzhi, W., Lu, H.L., Yunhua, Z., Juhui, C., Gidaspow, D., and Chen, M. (2010), Numerical simulation of gas-particle flow with a second order moment method in bubbling fluidized beds, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, China, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, USA.
  10. [10]  Darcy, Henry Philibert Gaspard (1856), Les Fontaines publiques de la ville de Dijon,Exposition et application des principes \`{a} suivre et des formules \`{a} employer dans les questions de distribution deau, etc. V. Dalamont.
  11. [11]  Di Blasi, C. (2004), Modeling wood gasification in a countercurrent fixed-bed reactor, AIChE J., vol. 50(9), pp. 23062319.
  12. [12]  Fan, X., Yang, Z., Parker, D.J., and Armstrong, B. (2007), Prediction of bubble behaviour in fluidised beds based on solid motion and flow structure, University of Birmingham, UK.
  13. [13]  Fan, X., Yang, L. and Jiang, J. (2020), Experimental study on industrial-scale CFB biomass gasification, Renewable Energy, Vol. 158, pp. 32-36.
  14. [14]  Fletcher, D., Haynes, B., Christo, F. and Joseph, S. (1999), A CFD based combustion model of an entrained flow biomass gasifier, Appl. Math. Model, vol. 24, pp. 165182.
  15. [15]  Gidaspow, D., Bezburuah, R., and Ding, J. (1992), Hydrodynamics of Circulating Fluidized Beds, Kinetic Theory Approach, In Fluidization VII, Proceedings of the 7$^{th}$ Engineering Foundation Conference on Fluidization.
  16. [16] mez-Barea and Leckner (2010)]{18} G\{o}mez-Barea, A. and Leckner, B. (2010), Modeling of biomass gasification in fluidized bed, Prog. Energy Combust. Sci., vol. 36(4), pp. 444509.
  17. [17]  Herzog, N., Schreiber, M., Egbers, C., and Krautz, H.J. (2011), A comparative study of different CFD-codes for numerical simulation of gas--solid fluidized bed hydrodynamics, Brandenburg University of Technology Cottbus, Cottbus, Germany.
  18. [18]  Ismail, T.M., Abd El-Salam, M.A., Monteiro, E., and Rouboa, A. (2016), Eulerian--Eulerian CFD model on fluidized bed gasifier using coffee husks as fuel, Applied Thermal Engineering, vol.~106, pp. 1391-1402.
  19. [19]  Ismail, T.M. and Abd El-Salam, M.A. (2017), Parametric studies on biomass gasification process on updraft gasifier high temperature air gasification, Applied Thermal Engineering, vol.~112, pp. 1460-1473.
  20. [20]  Ismail, T.M., El-Salam, M.A., Monteiro, E., and Rouboa, A. (2018), Fluid dynamics model on fluidized bed gasifier using agro-industrial biomass as fuel, Waste Management, vol. 73, pp. 476-486.
  21. [21]  Kaviany, M. (2012), Principles of heat transfer in porous media. Springer Science {$\&$ Business Media}.
  22. [22]  Kuo, K.K. (1986), Principles of combustion, New York: John Wiley & Sons.
  23. [23]  Liu, L., Huang, Y., Cao, J., Liu, C., Dong, L., Xu, L., and Zha, J. (2018), Experimental study of biomass gasification with oxygen-enriched air in fluidized bed gasifier, Science of The Total Environment, Vol. 626, pp. 423-433.
  24. [24]  Lu, D., Yoshikawa, K., Ismail, T.M., and El-Salam, M.A. (2018), Assessment of the carbonized woody briquette gasification in an updraft fixed bed gasifier using the Euler-Euler model, Applied Energy, vol. 220, pp. 70- 86.
  25. [25]  Messineo, A., Bonasera, D., Volpe, R., Simona, M., and Marvuglia, A. (2016), Technical and Economical Assessment of Biomass Potential for Power Production: A Study in the South of Italy, Journal of Environmental Accounting and Management, 4(3), 287-299.
  26. [26]  Simonin, O. and Neau, H. (2009), Numerical simulation of hydrodynamics and transfers in fluidized bed gasparticle reactors, Toulouse Institute of Fluid Mechanics (IMFT), France.
  27. [27]  Monteiro, E., Ismail, T.M., Ramos, A., El-Salam, M.A., Brito, P.S., and Rouboa, A. (2017), Assessment of the miscanthus gasification in a semi-industrial gasifier using a CFD model, Applied Thermal Engineering, vol. 123, pp. 448-57.
  28. [28]  Monteiro, E., Ismail, T.M., Ramos, A., El-Salam, M.A., Brito, P., and Rouboa, A. (2018), Experimental and modeling studies of Portuguese peach stone gasification on an autothermal bubbling fluidized bed pilot plant, Energy, vol. 142, pp. 862-77.
  29. [29]  Rong, L.W. and Zhan, J.M. (2010), Improved DEM-CFD model and validation: a conical-base spouted bed simulation study, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.
  30. [30]  Sierra, C. (2002), Instability in gas-solid fluidization: dense bed dynamics and influence of boundary conditions, University Institute of Industrial Thermal Systems, UMR 7343, CNRS, France.
  31. [31]  Xiang, Y., Cai, L., Guan, Y., Liu, W., Cheng, Z. and Liu, Z. (2020), Study on the effect of gasification agents on the integrated system of biomass gasification combined cycle and oxy-fuel combustion, Energy, Vol. 206, 118131.
  32. [32]  Westbrook, C.K. and Dryer, F.L. (1981), Simplified Reaction Mechanisms for the Oxidation of Hydrocarbon Fuels in Flames, Combust. Sci. Technol., vol. 27(12), pp. 3143.
  33. [33]  Wang, Y. and Kinoshita, C.M. (1993), Kinetic model of biomass gasification, Solar Energy, vol. 51(1), pp. 1925.
  34. [34]  Wang, X. and Sun, X. (2011), Effects of non-uniform inlet boundary conditions and lift force on prediction of phase distribution in upward bubbly flows with Fluent-IATE, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Ohio State University, USA.
  35. [35]  Warnatz, J. (1981), The structure of laminar alkane, alkene and acetylene flames, pr\{e}sent\{e} \`{a} Eighteen Symposium (International) on Combustion.