Skip Navigation Links
Journal of Environmental Accounting and Management
Dmitry Kovalevsky (editor), Jiazhong Zhang(editor)
Dmitry Kovalevsky (editor)

Climate Service Center Germany (GERICS), Helmholtz-Zentrum Hereon, Fischertwiete 1, 20095 Hamburg, Germany

Fax: +49 (0) 40 226338163 Email: dmitry.v.kovalevsky@gmail.com

Jiazhong Zhang (editor)

School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi Province 710049, China

Fax: +86 29 82668723 Email: jzzhang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn


An Integrated Pollution Prevention Ecosystem for Small-Scale Production of Raw Coco-nut Jelly in Craft Villages —A Case Study from Mekong Delta, Vietnam

Journal of Environmental Accounting and Management 8(3) (2020) 293--310 | DOI:10.5890/JEAM.2020.09.007

Le Thanh Hai$^{1}$, Tra Van Tung$^{1}$, Tran Van Thanh$^{1}$, Le Quoc Vi$^{1}$, Nguyen Thi Phuong Thao$^{1}$, Tran Thi Hieu$^{1}$, Son Le$^{2}$, Sibylle Braunegg$^{3}$, Gerhart Braunegg$^{4}$, Hans Schnitzer$^{3}$

$^{1}$ Institute for Environment and Resources, National University of Ho Chi Minh City, Ho Chi Minh 740500, Vietnam

$^{2}$ Water and Environmental Engineering, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 852-8521, Japan

$^{3}$ Institute for Process and Particle Engineering, Graz University of Technology, Graz A-8010, Austria

$^{4}$ ARENA Research for Sustainable Resources, Graz A-8010, Austria

Download Full Text PDF

 

Abstract

Raw coconut jelly is a popular byproduct of the coconut processing industry in the Asia Pacific which can enhance the added economic value for the local families in the rural area. However, the coconut jelly production has resulted in significant environmental impacts, particularly to the aquatic environment due to its heavily polluted wastewater e.g. very high values of COD (up to 120,000 mg/l), of total nitrogen (up to 1,740 mg/l), and of total phosphorus (up to 64 mg/l). The available wastewater treatment technology for such type of wastewater is likely to be not economically efficient due to the small-scale production at craft villages in the developing countries. This study developed and demonstrated an integrated eco-model for small (family) scale production of raw coconut jelly in craft villages which applied Cleaner Production sollutions for pollution prevention on the basis of available conditions at the local family. The system demonstration showed a win-win solution for family with major benefits by reduction of 90% of pollutants (i.e 27 kg COD, 21.4 kg BOD5, approx. 7 kg N, 113 g P and 28 kg SO42−for one production batch), as well as the other benefit by major reduction of 90 % of investment and operating costs of the wastewater treatment plant.

Acknowledgments

This research was funded by the Vietnam National University of Ho ChiMinh City (VNU-HCM) under the grant number KHCN-TNB/14-19/C25. The authors also thank the Asean-European Academic University Network (Asea-Uninet) for financial support to collaboration between IER (VNU-HCM, Vietnam) and IPPE (TU Graz, Austria) to implement this study.

References

  1. [1]  Alary, V., Corbeels, M., Affholder, F., Alvarez, S., Soria, A., Valadares Xavier, J.H., and Scopel, E. (2016), Economic assessment of conservation agriculture options in mixed crop-livestock systems in Brazil using farm modelling, Agricultural Systems, 144, 33-45.
  2. [2]  Amongo, R.M.C. (1995), Treatment and disposal of nata de coco wastewater. http://agris.fao.org/agrissearch/search.do?recordID=PH9511291, [access in 01/2019].
  3. [3]  Audsley, E. andWilkinson,M. (2014),What is the potential for reducing national greenhouse gas emissions from crop and livestock production systems? Journal of Cleaner Production, 73, 263-268.
  4. [4]  Baozhen Wang. (1991), EcologicalWaste Treatment and Utilization Systems on Low-Cost, Energy-Saving/Generating and Resources Recoverable Technology for Water Pollution Control in China, Water Science and Technology 24, 9-19.
  5. [5]  Budhiono, A., Rosidi, B., Taher, H., and Iguchi,M. (1999), Kinetic aspects of bacterial cellulose formation in nata-de-coco culture system, Carbohydrate Polymers, 40(2), 137-143.
  6. [6]  Burton, J. (2018), The World Leaders In Coconut Production. Available on: worldatlas.com/articles/the-world-leaders-in-coconut-production.html [access in April 2019].
  7. [7]  Cakar, F., Özer, I., Aytekin, A.Ö. and Sahin, F. (2014), Improvement production of bacterial cellulose by semi-continuous process in molasses medium, Carbohydrate Polymers, 106(2014), 7-13.
  8. [8]  Carreira, P., Mendes, J.A.S., Trovatti, E., Serafim, L.S., Freire, C.S.R., Silvestre, A.J.D., and Neto, C.P. (2011), Utilization of residues from agro-forest industries in the production of high value bacterial cellulose, Bioresource Technology, 102(15), 7354-7360.
  9. [9]  Cervantes, F.J., Pavlostathis, S.G., and Haandel, A.C. (2006), Advanced biological treatment processes for industrial wastewaters, Priciple and Application, IWA Publishing, United Kingdom.
  10. [10]  Costa,M.P., Schoeneboom, J.C., Oliveira, S.A., Vi˜ñas, R.S., and de Medeiros, G.A. (2018), A socio-eco-efficiency analysis of integrated and non-integrated crop-livestock-forestry systems in the Brazilian Cerrado based on LCA, Journal of Cleaner Production, 171, 1460-1471.
  11. [11]  Elferink, E.V., Nonhebel, S., and Moll, H.C. (2008), Feeding livestock food residue and the consequences for the environmental impact of meat, Journal of Cleaner Production, 16(12), 1227-1233.
  12. [12]  Engle, C.R. (1987), Optimal Product Mix for Integrated Livestock-Fish Culture Systems on Limited Resource Farms, Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 18(3), 137-147.
  13. [13]  Esa, F., Tasirin, S.M. and Rahman, N.A. (2014), Overview of Bacterial Cellulose Production and Application, Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia, 2, 113-119.
  14. [14]  Esteves, E.M.M., Esteves, V.P.P., Bungenstab, D.J., Araújo, O.Q.F., and Morgado, C.R.V. (2018), Greenhouse gas emissions related to biodiesel from traditional soybean farming compared to integrated crop-livestock systems, Journal of Cleaner Production, 179, 81-92.
  15. [15]  Freire, A.L.F., Araújo Júnior, C.P., Rosa, M.F., Almeida Neto, J.A., and Figueirêdo,M.C.B. (2017), Environmental assessment of bioproducts in development stage: The case of fiberboards made from coconut residues, Journal of Cleaner Production, 153, 230-241.
  16. [16]  Gomes, F.P., Silva, N.H.C.S., ElianeTrovatti, Serafim, L.S., Duarte, M.F., Silvestre, A.J.D., and Freire, C.S.R. (2013), Production of bacterial cellulose by Gluconacetobacter sacchari using dry olive mill residue, Biomass and Bioenergy, 55, 205-211.
  17. [17]  Hai, L.T., Schnitzer, H., van Thanh, T., Thao, N.T.P., and Braunegg, G. (2016), An integrated eco-model of agriculture and small-scale industry in craft villages toward cleaner production and sustainable development in rural areas-A case study from Mekong delta of Viet Nam, Journal of Cleaner Production, 137, 274-282.
  18. [18]  Hu, Y. and Catchmark, J. M. (2010), Influence of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) on theproduction of bacterial cellulose biosynthesized byAcetobacter xylinumunder the agitated culture, Applied Microbiology, 51, 109-113.
  19. [19]  Huang, C., Guo, H.J., Xiong, L., Wang, B., Shi, S.L., Chen, X.F., and Chen, X.D. (2016), Using wastewater after lipid fermentation as substrate for bacterial cellulose production by Gluconacetobacter xylinus, Carbohydrate Polymers, 136, 198-202.
  20. [20]  Jozala, A. F., de Lencastre-Novaes, L.C., Lopes, A. M., de Carvalho Santos-Ebinuma, V., Mazzola, P. G., Pessoa-Jr, A., and Chaud,M. V. (2016), Bacterial nanocellulose production and application: a 10-year overview, AppliedMicrobiology and Biotechnology, 100(5), 2063-2072.
  21. [21]  Jozala, A.F., Pértile, R.A.N., Santos, C.A., Santos-Ebinuma, V.C., Seckler, M.M., Gama, F.M., and Jr, A.P. (2015), Bacterial cellulose production by Gluconacetobacter xylinus by employing alternative culture media, Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 99(3), 1181-1190.
  22. [22]  Jung, H.I., Lee, O.M., Jeong, J.H., Jeon, Y.D., Park, K.H., Kim, H.S., and Son, H.J. (2010), Production and Characterization of Cellulose by Acetobacter sp. V6 Using a Cost-Effective Molasses-Corn Steep Liquor Medium, Appl Biochem Biotechnol, 162, 486-497.
  23. [23]  Keshk, S. and Sameshima, K. (2006), Influence of lignosulfonate on crystal structure and productivity of bacterial cellulose in a static culture. Enzyme and Microbial Technology, 40(1), 4-8.
  24. [24]  Kim, S.S., Lee, S.Y., Park, K.J., Park, S.M., An, H.J., Hyun, J.M., and Choi, Y.H. (2015), Gluconacetobacter sp.gel SEA623-2, bacterial cellulose producing bacterium isolated from citrus fruit juice, Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences, 24(2017), 314-319.
  25. [25]  Kiziltas, E.E., Kiziltas, A., and J.Gardner, D. (2015), Synthesis Of Bacterial Cellulose Using Hot Water Extracted Wood Sugars. Carbohydrate Polymers, 124, 131-138.
  26. [26]  Komarek, A.M., Bell, L.W., Whish, J.P.M., Robertson, M.J., and Bellotti, W.D. (2015), Whole-farm economic, risk and resource-use trade-offs associated with integrating forages into crop-livestock systems in western China, Agricultural Systems, 133, 63-72.
  27. [27]  Kurosumi, A., Sasaki, C., Yamashita, Y., and Nakamura, Y. (2008), Utilization of various fruit juices as carbon source for production of bacterial cellulose by Acetobacter xylinum NBRC 13693, Carbohydrate Polymers, 76(2009), 333-335.
  28. [28]  Li, Z., Sui, P., Wang, X., Yang, X., Long, P., Cui, J., and Chen, Y. (2017), Comparison of net GHG emissions between separated system and crop-swine integrated system in the North China Plain, Journal of Cleaner Production, 149, 653- 664.
  29. [29]  Li, Z., Wang, L., Hua, J., Jia, S., Zhang, J., and Liua, H. (2014), Production of nano bacterial cellulose from waste water of candied jujube-processing industry using Acetobacter xylinum, Carbohydrate Polymers, 120(2015), 115-119.
  30. [30]  Lin, D., Lopez-Sanchez, P., Li, R., and Lia, Z. (2014), Production of bacterial cellulose by Gluconacetobacter hansenii CGMCC 3917 using only waste beer yeast as nutrient source, Bioresource Technology, 151, 113-119.
  31. [31]  Lu, Z., Zhang, Y., Chi, Y., Xu, N., Yao, W., and Sun, B. (2011), Effects of alcohols on bacterial cellulose production by Acetobacter xylinum 186, World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 27, 2281-2285.
  32. [32]  Mikkelsen, D., Flanagna, B.M., Dykes, G.A., and Gidley, M.J. (2009), Influence of different carbon sources on bacterial celluloseproduction byGluconacetobacter xylinusstrain ATCC 53524, Applied Microbiology, 107, 576-583.
  33. [33]  Mohri, H., Lahoti, S., Saito, O., Mahalingam, A., Gunatilleke, N., Irham, and Herath, S. (2013), Assessment of ecosystem services in homegarden systems in Indonesia, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam, Ecosystem Services, 5, 124-136.
  34. [34]  Naik, J.N. (2017), Growth trends in areas, production and productivity in major growing countries, IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 22(9), 47-56.
  35. [35]  Nhan, D.K., Phong, L.T., Verdegem, M.J.C., Duong, L.T., Bosma, R.H., and Little, D.C. (2007), Integrated freshwater aquaculture, crop and livestock production in the Mekong delta, Vietnam: Determinants and the role of the pond, Agricultural Systems, 94, 445-458.
  36. [36]  Paolotti, L., Boggia, A., Castellini, C., Rocchi, L., and Rosati, A. (2016), Combining livestock and tree crops to improve sustainability in agriculture: a case study using the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach, Journal of Cleaner Production, 131, 351-363.
  37. [37]  Parsons, D., Nicholson, C.F., Blake, R.W., Ketterings, Q.M., Ramírez-Aviles, L., Fox, D.G., and Cherney, J.H. (2011), Development and evaluation of an integrated simulation model for assessing smallholder crop-livestock production in Yucatán, Mexico. Agricultural Systems, 104(1), 1-12.
  38. [38]  Peyraud, J.-L., Taboada, M., and Delaby, L. (2014), Integrated crop and livestock systems in Western Europe and South America: A review, European Journal of Agronomy, 57, 31-42.
  39. [39]  Punchihewa, P.G. and Arancon, R.N. (1999), COCONUT: Post-harvest Operations. Asian and Pacific Coconut Community (APCC).
  40. [40]  Phisalaphong, M., Tran, T.-K., Taokaew, S., Budiraharjo, R., Febriana, G. G., Nguyen, D.-N., and Dourado, F. (2016), Chapter 14-Nata de coco Industry in Vietnam, Thailand, and Indonesia Muenduen Phisalaphong, Tien-Khai Tran, Son Chu-Ky, and Fernando Dourado have contributed equally to this work. In M. Gama, F. Dourado and S. Bielecki (Eds.), Bacterial Nanocellulose (pp. 231-236), Amsterdam: Elsevier.
  41. [41]  Rahmayanti, H.D., Amalia, N., Dewi, Y.C., Sustini, E., and Abdullah, M. (2018), Development of Nata de Coco-based transparent air masks, Materials Research Express, 5(5), 054004.
  42. [42]  Rigolot, C., de Voil, P., Douxchamps, S., Prestwidge, D., Van Wijk, M., Thornton, P.K., and Herrero, M. (2017), Interactions between intervention packages, climatic risk, climate change and food security in mixed crop-livestock systems in Burkina Faso, Agricultural Systems, 151, 217-224.
  43. [43]  Rodríguez-Ortega, T., Bernués, A., Olaizola, A.M., and Brown,M.T. (2017), Does intensification result in higher efficiency and sustainability? An emergy analysis of Mediterranean sheep-crop farming systems, Journal of Cleaner Production, 144, 171-179.
  44. [44]  Stark, F., Fanchone, A., Semjen, I., Moulin, C.-H., and Archimède, H. (2016), Crop-livestock integration, from single practice to global functioning in the tropics: Case studies in Guadeloupe, European Journal of Agronomy, 80, 9-20.
  45. [45]  Therond, O., Duru, M., Roger-Estrade, J., and Richard, G. (2017), A new analytical framework of farming system and agriculture model diversities, A review, Agronomy for Sustainable Development, 37(3), 21.
  46. [46]  Thomson, E.F. and Bahhady, F.A. (1995), A model-farm approach to research on crop-livestock integration — I. Conceptual framework and methods, Agricultural Systems, 49(1), 1-16.
  47. [47]  Tran, M.H. (2012), Nghiên cúu hiệú quú xú lú sulfate và COD trong diều kiện kỵkhí (Study on the treatment of sulphate and COD under anaerobic conditions), in Vietnamese. Institute for Environment and Resources.
  48. [48]  VNCPC. (2011), Tài liệu hu’ớ’ng d˜ễn SXSH trong công nghiệp: ngành chế biến dù'a (Guideline on cleaner production in coconut proccessing), in Vietnamese.
  49. [49]  Wu, J.M. and Liu, R.H. (2012), Thin stillage supplementation greatly enhances bacterial cellulose production by Gluconacetobacter xylinus. Carbohydrate Polymers, 90(1), 116-121.
  50. [50]  Wu, J.M. and Liu, R.H. (2013), Cost-effective production of bacterial cellulose in static cultures using distillery wastewater, Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, 115(3), 284-290.
  51. [51]  Yunlong, C. and Smit, B. (1994), Sustainability in Chinese agriculture: challenge and hope, Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 49(3), 279-288.