Skip Navigation Links
Journal of Environmental Accounting and Management
Dmitry Kovalevsky (editor), Jiazhong Zhang(editor)
Dmitry Kovalevsky (editor)

Climate Service Center Germany (GERICS), Helmholtz-Zentrum Hereon, Fischertwiete 1, 20095 Hamburg, Germany

Fax: +49 (0) 40 226338163 Email: dmitry.v.kovalevsky@gmail.com

Jiazhong Zhang (editor)

School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi Province 710049, China

Fax: +86 29 82668723 Email: jzzhang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn


Biochar as Improver of Methane Production in Anaerobic Digestion of Food Waste

Journal of Environmental Accounting and Management 8(3) (2020) 267--279 | DOI:10.5890/JEAM.2020.09.005

Ciro Florio$^{1}$,$^{2}$, Paola Giudicianni$^{3}$, Domenico Pirozzi$^{2}$, Vincenzo Pasquale$^{1}$, Raffaele Ragucci$^{3}$, Stefano Dumontet$^{1}$

$^{1}$University of Naples “Parthenope”, Department of Science and Technology (DiST), Centro Direzionale di Napoli, ISOLA C4, 80143, Naples (Italy)

$^{2}$University of Naples “Federico II”, Department of Chemical Engineering, Materials and Industrial Production (DICMaPI), Piazzale Tecchio, 80, 80125, Naples (Italy)

$^{3}$Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Ricerche sulla Combustione, Piazzale Tecchio, 80, 80125, Naples (Italy)

Download Full Text PDF

 

Abstract

Anaerobic digestion of food waste is aimed both at the reduction of the volume of waste and the production of methane. Carbonaceous additives such as activated carbons were widely studied as enhancer of methane production. In this paper a low-cost alternative additive, the biochar, was proposed to assess its use for improving both the operational stability and the energetic output of anaerobic digestion. The main objective of the present work is to assess and quantify the increase of CH4 yields induced by the biochar addition and to identify all the main mechanisms responsible of this improvement. The risk related to the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons release from biochar in the anaerobic digestion media was discussed as well. To this aim, biochar obtained from steam assisted slow pyrolysis of Populus nigra L. up to 600 °C was used. Anaerobic digestion of food waste mixture was carried out in a batch reactor in mesophilic conditions (37 °C). Four tests were conducted by adding 0, 1, 4 and 10 wt% of biochar on wet food waste mixture basis. Results showed that more CH4 is produced even in the first hours of the anaerobic digestion test when 10 wt% of biochar was added to the food waste mixture (about 65 wt% more at 96 h), thus denoting a reduction of the lag phase. A total increase of CH4 yield of 14 and 42% when 4 and 10 wt% of biochar was added to the food waste mixture. In conclusion, analyses of both the liquid phase during the tests and biochar sampled at the end of anaerobic digestion process revealed that biochar favored the decomposition of acetic acid, adsorbed some inhibitors such as butyric acid, and provided a suitable habitat for microbial colonization.

Acknowledgments

The work was supported by the Accordo di Programma CNR-MSE 2013-2014 under the contract “Bioenergia Efficiente”. Authors thank Luca Micoli, Angelo Ausiello, Gaetano Zuccaro and Valentina Gargiulo for the technical support, and Claudio Ferone and Luciano Cortese for SEM analysis.

References

  1. Al-Zuahiri, F., Pirozzi, D., Ausiello, A., Florio, C., Turco, M., Zuccaro, G., Micoli, L., and Toscano, G. (2015), Biogas production from solid state anaerobic digestion for municipal solid waste, Chemical Engineering Transaction, 43, 2407-2412.
  2. Al-Zuhairi, F., Micoli, L., Florio, C., Ausiello, A., Turco, M., Pirozzi, D., and Toscano, G. (2019), Anaerobic co-digestion of municipal solid wastes with giant reed under mesophilic conditions, Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management, 21, 1-9.
  3. Antal, M.J. and Grønli, M. (2003), The art, science, and technology of charcoal production, Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, 42, 1619-1640.
  4. Ausiello, A., Micoli, L., Turco, T., Toscano, G., Florio, C., and Pirozzi, D. (2017), Biohydrogen production by dark fermentation of Arundo donax using a new methodology for selection of H2-producing bacteria, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 42(52), 30599-30612.
  5. Box, J.D. (1983), Investigation of the Folin-Ciocalteau phenol reagent for the determination of polyphenolic substances in natural waters, Water Research 17(5), 511-525.
  6. Brunauer, S., Emmett, P.H., and Teller, E. (1938), Adsorption of gases in multimolecular layers, Journal of the American chemical society, 60(2), 309-319.
  7. Chalmin, P. and Gaillochet, C. (2009), FromWaste to Resource: an abstract ofWorldWaste Survey. Ed. Economica, Paris, France.
  8. Chen, Y., Cheng, J.J., and Creamer, K.S. (2008), Inhibition of anaerobic digestion process: a review, Bioresource Technology, 99(10), 4044-4064.
  9. Di Blasi, C. (2009), Combustion and gasification rates of lignocellulosic chars, Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, 35, 121-140.
  10. Enders, A., Hanley, K., Whitman, T., Joseph, S., and Lehmann, J. (2012), Characterization of biochars to evaluate recalcitrance and agronomic performance, Bioresource technology, 114, 644-653.
  11. Fabbri, D., Rombolà, A.G., Torri, C., and Spokas, K.A. (2013), Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in biochar and biochar amended soil, Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, 103, 60-67.
  12. Fagbohungbe,M.O., Herbert, B.M., Hurst, L., Ibeto, C.N., Li, H., Usmani, S.Q., and Semple, K.T. (2017), The challenges of anaerobic digestion and the role of biochar in optimizing anaerobic digestion, Waste management, 61, 236-249.
  13. Fagbohungbe, M.O., Herbert, B.M., Hurst, L., Li, H., Usmani, S.Q., and Semple, K.T. (2016), Impact of biochar on the anaerobic digestion of citrus peel waste, Bioresource Technology, 216, 142-149.
  14. Florio, C., Pirozzi, D., Ausiello, A., Micoli, L., Pasquale, V., Toscano, G., Turco, M., and Dumontet, S. (2017), Effect of inoculum/substrate ratio on dark fermentation for biohydrogen production from organic fraction of municipal solid waste, Chemical Engineering Transaction, 57, 175-180.
  15. Giorcelli,M., Savi, P., Khan, A., and Tagliaferro, A. (2019), Analysis of biochar with different pyrolysis temperatures used as filler in epoxy resin composites, Biomass Bioenergy, 122, 466-471.
  16. Giudicianni, P., Pindozzi, S., Grottola, C.M., Stanzione, F., Faugno, S., Fagnano, M., and Ragucci, R. (2017), Pyrolysis for exploitation of biomasses selected for soil phytoremediation: Characterization of gaseous and solid products, Waste Management, 61, 288-299.
  17. Hale, S.E., Lehmann, J., Rutherford, D., Zimmerman, A.R., Bachmann, R.T., Shitumbanuma, V., and Cornelissen, G.(2012), Quantifying the total and bioavailable polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and dioxins in biochars, Environment Science and Technology, 46(5), 2830-2838.
  18. Han, Y., Boateng, A.A., Qi, P.X., Lima, I.M., and Chang, J. (2013), Heavy metal and phenol adsorptive properties of biochars from pyrolyzed switchgrass and woody biomass in correlation with surface properties, Journal of Environment Management, 118, 196-204.
  19. ISPRA (2015), Rapporto sui rifiuti solidi urbani, Edizione 2015-Dati di sintesi, Vol. 203/2015. Roma.
  20. Kizito, S., Wu, S., Wandera, S.M., Guo, L., and Dong, R. (2016), Evaluation of ammonium adsorption in biochar field for treatment of anaerobically digested swine slurry: experimental optimisation and modeling, Science of the Total Environment, 563-564, 1095-1104.
  21. Komilis, D., Barrena, R., Grando, R.L., Vogiatzi, V., Sánchez, A., and Font, X. (2017), A state of the art literature review on anaerobic digestion of food waste: influential operating parameters on methane yield, Reviews in Environmental Science and Bio-Technology, 16(2), 347-360.
  22. Lee, J.Y., Lee, S.H., and Park, H.D. (2016), Enrichment of specific electro-active microorganisms and enhancement of methane production by adding granular activated carbon in anaerobic reactors, Bioresource Technology, 205, 205-212.
  23. Lehmann, J. and Joseph, S. (2009), Biochar for Environmental Management: Science and Technology. Earthscan Press, London, UK
  24. Liu, F., Rotaru, A.E., Shrestha, P.M., Malvankar, N.S., Nevin, K.P., and Lovely, D.R. (2012), Promoting direct interspecies electron transfer with activated carbon, Energy and Environmental Science, 5, 8982-8989.
  25. Luo, C., Lü, F., Shao, L., and He, P. (2015), Application of eco-compatible biochar in anaerobic digestion to relieve acid stress and promote the selective colonization of functional microbes, Water Research 68, 710-718.
  26. Masebinu, S.O., Akinlabi, E.T., Muzenda, E., and Aboyade, A.O. (2019), A review of biochar properties and their roles in mitigating challenges with anaerobic digestion, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 103, 291-307.
  27. Meyer-Kohlstock, D., Haupt, T., Heldt, E., Heldt, N., and Kraft, E. (2016), Biochar as additive in biogas-production from bio-waste, Energies, 9(4), 247.
  28. Mumme, J., Srocke, F., Heeg, K., andWerner, M. (2014), Use of biochars in anaerobic digestion, Bioresource Technology, 164, 189-197.
  29. Nelson, N. (1944),A photometric adaptation of the Somogyimethod for the determination of glucose, Journal of Biological Chemistry, 153(2), 375-380.
  30. Olguin-Lora, P., Puig-Grajales, L. and Razo-Flores, E. (2003), Inhibition of the acetoclastic methanogenic activity by phenol and alkyl phenols, Environmental Technology, 24, 999-1006.
  31. Patel, S.K., Singh, R.K., Kumar, A., Jeong, J.H., Jeong, S.H., Kalia, V.C., Kim, I.W., and Lee, J.K. (2017), Biological methanol production by immobilized Methylocella tundrae using simulated biohythane as a feed, Bioresource Technology, 241, 922-927.
  32. Pirozzi, D., Ausiello, A., Strazza, R., Trofa, M., Zuccaro, G., and Toscano, G. (2013), Exploitation of agricultural biomasses for the synthesis of II-generation biodiesel, Chemical Engineering Transaction, 32, 175-180.
  33. Schievano, A., D'Imporzano, G., Malagutti, L., Fragali, E., Ruboni, G., and Adani, F. (2010), Evaluating inhibition conditions in high-solids anaerobic digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste, Bioresource Technology, 101(14), 5728-5732.
  34. Sepehri, A. and Sarrafzadeh, M.H. (2018), Effect of nitrifiers community on fouling mitigation and nitrification efficiency in a membrane bioreactor, Chemical Engineering and Processing, 128, 10-18.
  35. Shen, Y., Linville, J.L., Ignacio-de Leon, P.A.A., Schoene, R.P., and Urgun-Demirtas, M. (2016), Towards a sustainable paradigm of waste-to-energy process: Enhanced anaerobic digestion of sludge with woody biochar, Journal of Cleaner Production, 135, 1054-1064.
  36. Sharma, P. andMelkania, U. (2017), Biochar-enhanced hydrogen production fromorganic fraction of municipal solid waste using co-culture of Enterobacter aerogenes and E. coli, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, (42), 18865-18874.
  37. Shen, Y.S., Forrester, S., Koval, J., and Urgun-Demirtas, M. (2017), Yearlong semi-continuous operation of thermophilic two-stage anaerobic digesters amended with biochar for enhanced biomethane production, Journal of Cleaner Production, 167, 863-874.
  38. Spokas, K.A. (2010), Review of the stability of biochar in soils: predictability of O:C molar ratios, Carbon Management, 1, 289-303.
  39. Stewart, D.J., Bogue, M.J., and Badger, D.M. (1984), Biogas production from crops and organic wastes, New Zealand Journal of Science, 27(3), 285-294.
  40. Sunyoto, N.M., Zhu,M., Zhang, Z., and Zhang, D. (2016), Effect of biochar addition on hydrogen and methane production in two-phase anaerobic digestion of aqueous carbohydrates food waste, Bioresource Technology, 219, 29-36.
  41. US EPA (2002). Polycyclic organic matter. Washington, DC, Environmental Protection Agency, available at: http://www.epa.gov/ttn/atw/hlthef/polycycl.html.
  42. Wang, G., Li, Q., Gao, X., andWang, X.C. (2018), Synergetic promotion of syntrophicmethane production from anaerobic digestion of complex organicwastes by biochar: performance and associated mechanisms, Bioresource Technology, 250, 812-820.
  43. Watanabe, R., Tada, C., Baba, Y., Fukuda, Y., and Nakai, Y. (2013), Enhancing methane production during the anaerobic digestion of crude glycerol using Japanese cedar charcoal, Bioresource Technology, 150, 387-392.
  44. Zhao, Z., Zhang, Y., Woodard, T.L., Nevin, K.P., and Lovley, D.R. (2015), Enhancing syntrophic metabolism in up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors with conductive carbon materials, Bioresource technology, 191, 140-145.