Skip Navigation Links
Journal of Environmental Accounting and Management
Dmitry Kovalevsky (editor), Jiazhong Zhang(editor)
Dmitry Kovalevsky (editor)

Climate Service Center Germany (GERICS), Helmholtz-Zentrum Hereon, Fischertwiete 1, 20095 Hamburg, Germany

Fax: +49 (0) 40 226338163 Email: dmitry.v.kovalevsky@gmail.com

Jiazhong Zhang (editor)

School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi Province 710049, China

Fax: +86 29 82668723 Email: jzzhang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn


Do the Improved Water Sources for 203 Countries Converge over Time?

Journal of Environmental Accounting and Management 8(3) (2020) 215--228 | DOI:10.5890/JEAM.2020.09.001

Yusang Chang$^{1}$, Yootaek Lee$^{2}$, Yoonji Lee$^{3}$, Ki Bae Kim$^{4}$

$^{1}$ Gachon University

$^{2}$ Questrom School of Business, Boston University

$^{3}$ Frederick S. Pardee School of Global Studies, Boston University

$^{4}$ Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs, Syracuse University

Download Full Text PDF

 

Abstract

The Sustainable DevelopmentGoals by the United Nations include a global target for Improved Water Source to reach 100% of population by 2030. There are still millions of people lacking the improved access to drinking water. We use the convergence methodology for 203 countries to determine whether the water shortage gap between water-rich versus water-poor countries has narrowed during 2000 to 2015. Results of our analysis show the narrowing of water shortage gaps. However, significant variations are found among income and regional subgroups. Implications of our findings indicate the reduction of water shortage gap within appropriate subgroups is needed. In particular, a set of policy recommendations are presented for sub Saharan Africa region where improvement of water supply is urgently needed.

Acknowledgments

We thank So-Eun Kim, a research assistant at Gachon Center of Convergence Reference for her contribution in preparing this manuscript.

References

  1. [1]  Agovino, M. and Rapposelli, A. (2017), Regional performance trends in providing employment for persons with disabilities: Evidence from Italy, Social Indicators Research, 130(2), 593-615.
  2. [2]  Barro, R.J. (1991), Economic growth in a cross section of countries, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 106(2), 407-443.
  3. [3]  Barro, R. and Sla-i-Martin, X. (1992), Convergence, Journal of Political Economy, 100, 223-251.
  4. [4]  Bhattacharya,M., Inekwe, J.N., Sadorsky, P., and Saha, A. (2018), Convergence of energy productivity across Indian states and territories, Energy Economics, 74, 427-440.
  5. [5]  Boyle, G.E. and McCarthy, T.G. (1997), A simple measure of beta-convergence,Oxford Bulletin Economics and Statistics, 57(2), 257- 64.
  6. [6]  CABRI. (2017), Key policy challenges and opportunities for improving service delivery in water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) in Africa. file:///C:/Users/admin/Downloads/CABRI-Key-Notes-WASH-ENG-WEB%20(1).pdf.
  7. [7]  Carrasco, C.A. and Ferreiro, J. (2014), Latin American inflation differentials with USA inflation: Does Inflation Targeting make a difference? Journal of Economic Policy Reform, 17(1), 13-32.
  8. [8]  Cha, S.,Mansiangi, P.M., Elhag,M.S., Lee, Y., and Jin, Y. (2016), Trends of improvedwater and sanitation coverage around the globe between 1990 and 2010: Inequality among countries and performance of official development assistance, Global Health Action, 10(1), 1-14.
  9. [9]  Chang, Y.S., Lee, Y.T., LEE, Y., and JIN, M.H. (2019a), Convergence Analysis of the Sanitation Index for 158 Countries, Journal of Environmental Accounting and Management, 7(3), 263-277.
  10. [10]  Chang, Y.S., Jeon, S., and Park, N.H. (2019b), Do time phase and income influence the convergence in energy intensity? A cross-country analysis, International Journal Energy Technology and Policy, 15, 301-319.
  11. [11]  Ferrara, A.R. and Nistico, R. (2015), Regional well-being indicators and dispersion from a multidimensional perspective: evidence from Italy, The Annals of Regional Science, 55(2-3), 373-420.
  12. [12]  Friedman, M. (1992), Do old fallacies ever die? Journal of Economic Literature, 30(4), 2129-2132.
  13. [13]  GIZ. (2019), Part I – Synthesis Report, Access to Water and Sanitation in Sub-Saharan Africa. Eschborn. http://www.oecd.org/water/GIZ_2018_Access_Study_Part%20I_Synthesis_Report.pdf.
  14. [14]  Heckelman, J.C. (2015), Economic freedom convergence clubs, Economic Behavior, Economic Freedom, and Entrepreneurship, 102-114.
  15. [15]  Hsu, A. et al. (2016), 2016 Environmental Performance Index. New Haven, CT: Yale University. Available: www.epi.yale.edu.
  16. [16]  Hopewell, M., and Graham, J. (2014), Trends in access to water supply and sanitation in 31 major sub-Saharan African cities: An analysis of DHS data from 2000 to 2012, BMC Public Health, 2104(14), 208.
  17. [17]  Huang, J., Yu, Y., andMa., C. (2018), Energy efficiency convergence in china: catch-up, lock-in and regulatory uniformity, Environ- mental and Resource Economics, 70(1),107-130.
  18. [18]  Hutton, G. and Chase, C. (2016), The knowledge base for achieving the sustainable development goal targets on water supply, sanitation and hygiene, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 13(6), 536.
  19. [19]  Hutton, G., and Varughese, M. (2016), The costs of meeting the 2030 sustainable development goal targets on drinking water, sanitation, and hygiene. Technical paper. Water and sanitation Program.Washington DC: World Bank Group.
  20. [20]  Jaunky, V.C. and Zhang, L. (2016), Convergence of operational efficiency in China’s provincial power sectors, The Energy Journal, 37(1), 3-27.
  21. [21]  Kallioras, D. and Tsiapa, M. (2015), The regional dimension of economic growth in Ukraine, Eastern European Business and Economics Journal, 1(3), 71-95.
  22. [22]  Liddle, B. (2012), OECD energy intensity, Energy Efficiency, 5, 583-597.
  23. [23]  Ndikumana, L. and Pickbourn, L. (2017), The impact of foreign aid allocation on access to social services in sub-Saharan Africa: the case of water and sanitation, World Development, 90, 104-114.
  24. [24]  Neumayer, E. (2001), Convergence in access to safe water and adequate sanitation: an analysis across countries and time, International Journal of Water, 1(2), 210-216.
  25. [25]  Quah, D. (1993), Galton’s Fallacy and Tests of the convergence hypothesis, Scandinavian Journal of Economics, 95(4), 427-43.
  26. [26]  Quah, D. (1996), Empirics for economic growth and convergence, European Economic Review, 40(6), 1353-1375.
  27. [27]  Real statistics using Excel: http://www.real-statistics.com/students-t-distribution/coefficient-of-variation-testing/Real statistics using Excel: http://www.real-statistics.com/reliability/kendalls-w/.
  28. [28]  Siegel, S. (1956), Nonparametric Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, Now York: McGraw-Hill pp: 229-239.
  29. [29]  UNICEF and World Health Organization. (2015), Progress on sanitation and drinking water : 2015 update and MDG assessment. WHO/Unicef, Geneva, pp. 90.
  30. [30]  United Nations. (2010), World general assembly resolution 64/292: the human right to water and sanitation. New York (NY): UN.
  31. [31]  WHO/UNICEF WHO/UNICEF JointMonitoring Program (JMP, 2015)Water Supply and Sanitation – 2015 Update, pp.4- 11. Available online: http://www.wssinfo.org/.
  32. [32]  WHO/UNICEF WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Program (JMP, 2017) 'WASH in the 2030 Agenda'. (accessed on 2 January 2019) Available online: https://data.unicef.org/resources/wash-2030-agenda/.
  33. [33]  World Bank Group. 2017. Reducing Inequalities in Water Supply, Sanitation, and Hygiene in the Era of the Sustainable Development Goals: Synthesis Report of the WASH Poverty Diagnostic Initiative. World Bank, Washington, DC.© World Bank.
  34. [34]  World Bank (2014): https://datahelpdesk.worldbank.org/knowledgebase/articles/906519worldbank-country-and-lendinggroups.
  35. [35]  World Bank: https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.H2O.SAFE.ZS.
  36. [36]  World Bank: https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.PCAP.CD.
  37. [37]  World Health Organization. (2015). Investing in water and sanitation: increasing access, reducing inequalities, GLAAS 2014 findings-special report for Africa. Geneva. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/water sanitation health/glaas2014- africa-region.pdf.
  38. [38]  Yu, Y. and Zhang, Y. (2015), World energy intensity revisited: a cluster analysis, Applied Economics Letters, 22(14), 1158-1169.
  39. [39]  Zumaquero, A.M. and Rivero, S.S. (2016), A contribution to the empirics of convergence in real GDP growth: The role of financial crises and exchange-rate regimes, Applied Economics, 48(23), 2156-2169.