Skip Navigation Links
Journal of Environmental Accounting and Management
António Mendes Lopes (editor), Jiazhong Zhang(editor)
António Mendes Lopes (editor)

University of Porto, Portugal


Jiazhong Zhang (editor)

School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi Province 710049, China

Fax: +86 29 82668723 Email:

On-road Vehicle Emission Inventory and Its Characteristics Analysis in Northeast China: A Case Study of Changchun, China

Journal of Environmental Accounting and Management 8(2) (2020) 179--200 | DOI:10.5890/JEAM.2020.06.006

Chengkang Gao$^{1}$, Qiao Ba$^{1}$, Kaihui Song$^{2}$, Qingjiang Xu$^{1}$, Yuhong Xing$^{1}$, Weiwei Chen$^{3}$, Zhenbo Yu$^{4}$, Hongming Na$^{1}$, Sen Wang$^{1}$

$^{1}$ School of Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819, China

$^{2}$ Department of Geographical Sciences, University of Maryland, College Park 20742, MD, USA

$^{3}$ Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Chinese Academy Sciences, Changchun 130000, China

$^{4}$ Heilongjiang Provincial Environmental Science Research Institute, Harbin 150000, China

Download Full Text PDF



The transportation sector in Northeast China is facing challenges of fuel combustion and vehicle maintenance, like many high latitude areas, for the cold weather, long-lasting snow and associated slippery roads. The high reliance on vehicles rather than bicycles reinforced the challenges, resulting in inefficient fuel burning and high emissions from mobility. To better understand transportation emissions from cold areas and inform emission control strategies, this study analyzed the temporal and spatial dynamics of transport emissions in 2016, taking Changchun city as a typical city representing northeast China. Based on field investigation and national motor emission guideline, this study established a 1km×1km spatial highresolution emission inventory for atmospheric pollutants in Changchun City and analyzed emission responsibility from different types of vehicles. The results showed that the annual emissions of atmospheric pollutants CO, HC, NOx, PM2.5, and PM10 from road movement sources in 2016 in Changchun were 137,700 tons, 29,000 tons, 40,900 tons, 2200 tons and 2400 tons, respectively. Small passenger vehicles had the highest contribution rates to CO and HC emissions, which were 47.8% and 57.9% respectively. Heavy trucks had the highest contribution rates to NOx and PM which were 41.5% and 43.85%, respectively. Small passenger cars and heavy-duty trucks are the focus of future road source air pollution control. On the spatial level, the emission intensity of atmospheric pollutants from road movement sources in Changchun showed a trend of decreasing from city center to urban edge, especially concentrated in the square areas enclosed by the eastern urban expressway, southern urban expressway, western urban expressway and northern urban expressway.


This work was supported by National Project of Key Research and Development Plan (2017YFC0212303-03), and the Based Research Projects of National Natural Science Foundation of China (41871212; 41601609), and the Based Research Projects of Northeastern University (N172504031).


  1. [1]  Guo, S., Hu, M., Zamora, M.L., Peng, J., Shang, D., Zheng, J., Molina, M.J., and Zhang, R. (2014), Elucidating severe urban haze formation in China, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111(49), 17373-17378.
  2. [2]  Qian, Y., Song, K., and Zhao, R. (2018), Research advances in relationship between ammonia pollution and PM2.5, Environmental Engineering, 36(5), 85-88.
  3. [3]  Huang, R.J., Zhang, Y., Bozzetti, C., Ho, K.F., Cao, J., Han, Y., and Zotter, P. (2014), High secondary aerosol contribution to particulate pollution during haze events in China, Nature, 514(7521), 218-222.
  4. [4]  Chan, C.K. and Yao, X. (2008), Air pollution in mega cities in China, Atmospheric environment, 42(1), 1-42.
  5. [5]  Changchun Statistical Bureau. Statistical Bulletin of National Economic and Social Development of Changchun City in 2017 (2018). 4505377.html
  6. [6]  China Automotive Technology and Research Center (2016). China Automotive Industry Yearbook. China Automotive Industry Yearbook Press, 228-292.
  7. [7]  Fontaras, G., Franco, V., Dilara, P., Martini, G., and Manfredi, U. (2014), Development and review of Euro 5 passenger car emission factors based on experimental results over various driving cycles, Science of the Total Environment, 468(469), 1034-1042.
  8. [8]  Gong, P., Liang, S., Carlton, E.J., Jiang, Q., Wu, J., Wang, L., and Remais, J.V. (2012), Urbanisation and health in China, The Lance, 379(9818), 843-852.
  9. [9]  Xie, Y., Dai, H., Dong, H., Hanaoka, T., and Masui, T. (2016), Economic impacts from PM2.5 pollution-related health effects in China: a provincial-level analysis, Environmental Science & Technology, 50(9), 4836-4843.
  10. [10]  Gentner, D.R., Harley, R.A., Miller, A.M., and Goldstein, A.H. (2009), Diurnal and seasonal variability of gasoline-related volatile organic compound emissions in Riverside, California, Environmental Science & Technology, 43(12), 4247.
  11. [11]  Hao, J., Wu, Y., Fu, L., He, D., and He, K. (2001), Source contributions to ambient concentrations of CO and NOx in the urban area of Beijing, Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A, 36(2), 215-228.
  12. [12]  Huang, C., Tao, S., Lou, S., Hu, Q.,Wang, H.,Wang, Q., and Zhou, L. (2017), Evaluation of emission factors for light-duty gasoline vehicles based on chassis dynamometer and tunnel studies in Shanghai, China, Atmospheric environment 169, 193-203.
  13. [13]  Kousoulidou, M., Fontaras, G., Ntziachristos, L., Bonnel, P., and Samaras, Z. (2013), Use of portable emissions measurement system (PEMS) for the development and validation of passenger car emission factors, Atmospheric Environment, 64(1), 329-338.
  14. [14]  Lang, J., Cheng, S., Zhou, Y., Zhang, Y., and Wang, G. (2014), Air pollutant emissions from on-road vehicles in China, 1999-2011, Science of the Total Environment, 496(496), 1-10.
  15. [15]  Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP) (2015), Technical Guidelines for the Preparation of Air Pollution Pollutants for Road Vehicles (Trial).
  16. [16]  Motrycz, G., Krzysztof, S., Beata, S., and Wróbel, T. (2016), Investigations on the dynamics of motor vehicle driving in nighttime conditions, The Archives of Automotive Engineering - Archiwum Motoryzacji, 73(3), 103-118.
  17. [17]  Ministry of Ecology and Environment of the People’s Republic of China (MEE) (2018), China vehicle environmental management annual report.
  18. [18]  Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP) (2017), China Automotive Environmental Management Annual Report.
  19. [19]  Mohammadiha,A.,Malakooti, H., and Esfahanian, V. (2018), Development of reduction scenarios for criteria air pollutants emission in Tehran Traffic Sector, Iran, Science of the Total Environment, 622–623, 17-28.
  20. [20]  Rhys-Tyler, G. A., Legassick, W., and Bell, M.C. (2011), The significance of vehicle emissions standards for levels of exhaust pollution from light vehicles in an urban area, Atmospheric Environment, 45(19), 3286-3293.
  21. [21]  Rubin, J.I., Kean, A.J., Harley, R.A. (2006), Temperature dependence of volatile organic compound evaporative emissions from motor vehicles, Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres, 111(D3)
  22. [22]  Song, Y., Shao, M., Liu, Y., Lu, S., Kuster,W., Goldan, P., and Xie, S. (2007), Source Apportionment of Ambient Volatile Organic Compounds in Beijing, Environmental Science & Technology, 41(12), 4348-53.
  23. [23]  Statistical Bureau of Changchun City (2016), Changchun Statistical Yearbook. Changchun: China Statistics Press, 214-215.
  24. [24]  The Ministry of Public Security of the People’s Republic of China (MPS) (2018).
  25. [25]  Weiss, M., Bonnel, P., and Kühlwein, J. (2012),Will Euro 6 reduce the NO x, emissions of new diesel cars – Insights from on-road tests with Portable Emissions Measurement Systems (PEMS), Atmospheric Environment, 62(15), 657-665.
  26. [26]  Wang, H., Chen, C., Huang, C., and Fu, L. (2008), On-road vehicle emission inventory and its uncertainty analysis for Shanghai, China, Science of the Total Environment, 398(1), 60-67.
  27. [27]  Wu, Y.N., Wang, H.Z., Liu, J., Yang, H.M., and Dong, J.J. (2011), Research on Driving Conditions of Light Vehicles in Nanjing, Automotive Practical Technology, 2011(5), 61-64.
  28. [28]  Wang, J. et al. (2018), Study on Vehicle Pollution Emission Characteristics and Control Policy Evaluation in Yangtze River Delta. Zhejiang University, 32-33.
  29. [29]  Tang, W., He, P., Yang, Q., Lu, Q., Zheng, S., Xia, Y., Jing, B., Lu, B., Huang, C., and Lu, J. (2018), Study on greenhouse gas emission inventory of road source in Hangzhou based on IVE model and large data analysis, Acta Scientiae Circumstantiate, 38(04), 1368-1376.
  30. [30]  Cao, Y. (2018), Studies of vehicle emission inventory in ShenZhen using MOVES. Harbin Institute of Technology, 41-42.