Skip Navigation Links
Journal of Environmental Accounting and Management
António Mendes Lopes (editor), Jiazhong Zhang(editor)
António Mendes Lopes (editor)

University of Porto, Portugal


Jiazhong Zhang (editor)

School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi Province 710049, China

Fax: +86 29 82668723 Email:

Impact of Climate Change on Crop Yields: Evidence from Irrigated and Dry Land Cultivation in Semi-Arid Region of India

Journal of Environmental Accounting and Management 8(1) (2020) 19--30 | DOI:10.5890/JEAM.2020.03.002

Rajesh Kalli, Pradyot Ranjan Jena

National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Surathkal. Mangalore-575025

Download Full Text PDF



With population pressure constantly growing in India the crop productivity is struggling hard to catch up. Erratic rainfall and steady rise in temperature create widely uncertain outcomes for the farming communities. Against this backdrop, the present study has used a climate dataset constructed at a finer spatial level from a southern Indian state namely Karnataka to analyze the yield response of rice and maize crops to climate change. Using a time period from 1992 to 2012, a panel dataset has been made at the district level. The fixed effect regression results show that rice and maize productivity has been impacted adversely due to a steady rise in temperature in the state. The extent of damage is found to be 7% to 10%. Further, the study has also probed the role of irrigation as a climate adaptation strategy and has found out that adverse yield impact is reduced in the presence of irrigation. These findings provide some specific directions for policy framing to curb yield damage arising from climate variability.


  1. [1]  Auffhammer, M., Hsiang, S.M., Schlenker, W., and Sobel, A. (2013), Using weather data and climate model output in economic analyses of climate change, Review of Environmental Economics and Policy, 7, 181-198.
  2. [2]  Auffhammer, M., Ramanathan, V., and Vincent, J.R. (2012), Climate change, the monsoon, and rice yield in India, Climate Change, 111, 411-424.
  3. [3]  Auffhammer, M., Ramanathan, V., and Vincent, J.R. (2006), Integrated model shows that atmospheric brown clouds and greenhouse gases have reduced rice harvests in India, Proceedings of The National Academy of Sciences of The United States of America, 103, 19668-19672.
  4. [4]  Benhin, J.K.A. (2008), South African crop farming and climate change: An economic assessment of impacts, Global Environmental Change, 18, 666-678.
  5. [5]  Blanc, E. and Schlenker, W. (2017), The use of panel models in assessments of climate impacts on agriculture, Review of Environmental Economics and Policy, 11, 258-279.
  6. [6]  Carleton, T.A. (2017), Crop-damaging temperatures increase suicide rates in India, Proceedings of The National Academy of Sciences of The United States of America, 114(33), 201701354.
  7. [7]  D’Agostino, A.L. and Schlenker, W. (2016), Recent weather fluctuations and agricultural yields: implications for climate change, Agricultural Economics (United Kingdom), 47, 159-171.
  8. [8]  Dkhar, D.K., Feroze, S.M., Singh, R., and Ray, L.I.P. (2017), Effect of rainfall variability on rice yield in north eastern hills of India: A case study, Agricultural Research, 6(4), 341-346.
  9. [9]  Guhathakurta, P., Rajeevan, M., Sikka, D.R., and Tyagi, A. (2015), Observed changes in southwest monsoon rainfall over India during 1901-2011, International Journal of Climatology, 35, 1881-1898.
  10. [10]  Gupta, R., Somanathan, E., and Dey, S. (2017), Global warming and local air pollution have reduced wheat yields in India, Climate Change, 140, 593-604.
  11. [11]  Jayasree, V. and Venkatesh, B. (2015), Analysis of Rainfall in Assessing the Drought in Semi-arid Region of Karnataka State, India, Water Resources Management, 29, 5613-5630.
  12. [12]  Jena, P.R. (2018), Does Trade Liberalization create more pollution? Evidence from a panel regression analysis across the states of India, Environmental Economics and Policy Studies, 20(4), 861-877.
  13. [13]  Jena, P.R. and Kalli, R. (2018), Measuring the impact of climate variability on rice and finger millet: empirical evidence from a drought prone region of India. Conference paper presented at 30th IAAE conference, Vancouver, Canada. Access on
  14. [14]  Kumar, K.S.K. (2011), Climate sensitivity of Indian agriculture: Do spatial effects matter? Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society, 4, 221-235.
  15. [15]  Kumar, K.S.K. and Parikh, J. (2001) Indian agriculture and climate sensitivity, Global EnvironmentalChange, 11, 147-154.
  16. [16]  Kurukulasuriya, P., Mendelsohn, R., Hassan, R., Benhin, J., Deressa, T., Diop, M., Eid, H.M., Fosu, K.Y., Gbetibouo, G., Jain, S., Mahamadou, A., Mano, R., Kabubo-Mariara, J., El-Marsafawy, S., Molua, E., Ouda, S., Ouedraogo, M., Séne,I., Maddison, D., Seo, S.N., and Dinar, A. (2006), Will African agriculture survive climate change? The World Bank Economic Review, 20, 367-388.
  17. [17]  Lobell, D.B. and Burke, M.B. (2010), On the use of statistical models to predict crop yield responses to climate change, Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 150(11), 1143-1452.
  18. [18]  Luo, Q. (2011), Temperature thresholds and crop production: A review, Climate Change, 109, 583-598.
  19. [19]  Mall, R.K., Singh, R., Gupta, A., Srinivasan, L., and Rathore, L.S. (2006), Impact of climate change on Indian agriculture: A review, Climatic Change, 78, 445-478.
  20. [20]  Mendelsohn, B.R., Nordhaus, W.D., and Shaw, D. (1999), The impact of global warming on agriculture: A Ricardian analysis, The American Economic Review, 84(4), 753-771.
  21. [21]  Mendelsohn, R. (2014), The impact of climate change on agriculture in Asia, Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 13, 660- 665.
  22. [22]  Mendelsohn, R., Dinar, A., andWilliams, L. (2006), The distributional impact of climate change on rich and poor countries, Environment and Development Economics, 11, 159.
  23. [23]  Mendelsohn, R., Nordhaus,W.D., and Shaw, D. (1994), The impact of global warming on agriculture: a Ricardian analysis, American Economic Review, 84, 753-771.
  24. [24]  Miao, R., Khanna, M., and Huang, H. (2016), Responsiveness of crop yield and acreage to prices and climate, American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 98, 191-211.
  25. [25]  Mishra, D., Sahu, N.C., and Sahoo, D. (2015), Impact of climate change on agricultural production of Odisha (India): A Ricardian analysis, Regional Environmental Change, 16(2), 575-584.
  26. [26]  Mondal, A., Khare, D., and Kundu, S. (2015), Spatial and temporal analysis of rainfall and temperature trend of India, Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 122(1), 143-158.
  27. [27]  Padakandla, S.R. (2016), Climate sensitivity of crop yields in the former state of Andhra Pradesh, India, Ecological Indicators, 70, 431-438.
  28. [28]  Pai, D.S., Sridhar, L., Badwaik,M.R., and Rajeevan, M. (2014), Analysis of the daily rainfall events over India using a new long period (1901-2010) high resolution (0.25◦ × 0.25◦) gridded rainfall data set, Climate Dynamics, 45(3-4), 755-776.
  29. [29]  Parry,M.L., Rosenzweig, C., Iglesias, A., Livermore, M., and Fischer, G. (2004), Effects of climate change on global food production under SRES emissions and socio-economic scenarios, Global Environmental Change, 14, 53-67.
  30. [30]  Pattanayak, A. and Kumar, K.S.K. (2014), Weather sensitivity of rice yield: evidence from India, Climate Change Economics, 05, 1450011.
  31. [31]  Roudier, P., Sultan, B., Quirion, P., and Berg, A. (2011), The impact of future climate change onWest African crop yields: What does the recent literature say? Global Environmental Change, 21, 1073-1083.
  32. [32]  Sanghi, A. and Mendelsohn, R. (2008), The impacts of global warming on farmers in Brazil and India, Global Environmental Change, 18, 655-665.
  33. [33]  Saseendran, S.A., Singh, K.K., Rathore, L.S., Singh, S.V., and Sinha, S.K. (2000), Effects of climate change on rice production in the tropical humid climate of Kerala, India, Climate Change, 44(4), 495-514.
  34. [34]  Schlenker, W., Hanemann, W.M., and Fisher, A.C. (2005), Will U.S. agriculture really benefit from global warming? Accounting for irrigation in the hedonic approach, American Economic Review, 95, 395-406.
  35. [35]  Schlenker,W. and Roberts, M. (2008), Estimating the impact of climate change on crop yields: the importance of nonlinear temperature effects, National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper, 13799,1-35.
  36. [36]  Singh, D., Tsiang, M., Rajaratnam, B., and Diffenbaugh, N.S. (2014), Observed changes in extreme wet and dry spells during the South Asian summer monsoon season, Nature Climate Change, 4(6), 456-461.
  37. [37]  Srivastava, A., Rajeevan, M., and Kshirsagar, S. (2009), Development of a high resolution daily gridded temperature data set (1969-2005) for the Indian region, Atmospheric Science Letters, 10, 249-254.
  38. [38]  Sultan, B., Guan, K., Kouressy, M., Biasutti, M., Piani, C., Hammer, G.L., McLean, G., and Lobell, D.B. (2014), Robust features of future climate change impacts on sorghum yields in West Africa, Environmental Research Letters, 9(10), 104006.
  39. [39]  Thornton, P.K. and Herrero,M. (2014), Climate change adaptation inmixed crop-livestock systems in developing countries, Global Food Security, 3(2), 99-107.
  40. [40]  Wang, P., Zhang, Z., Song, X., Chen, Y., Wei, X., Shi, P.J., and Tao, F.L. (2014), Temperature variations and rice yields in China: Historical contributions and future trends, Climate Change, 124(4), 777-789.
  41. [41]  Wei, X., Conway, D., Erda, L., Yinlong, X., Hui, J., Jinhe, J., Holman, I., and Yan, L. (2009), Future cereal production in China: The interaction of climate change, water availability and socio-economic scenarios, Global Environmental Change, 19(1), 34-44.
  42. [42]  Zhou, Y., Li, N., Dong, G., and Wu, W. (2013), Impact assessment of recent climate change on rice yields in the Heilongjiang reclamation area of north-east China, Journal of The Science of Food and Agriculture, 93(11), 2698-2706.