Skip Navigation Links
Journal of Environmental Accounting and Management
António Mendes Lopes (editor), Jiazhong Zhang(editor)
António Mendes Lopes (editor)

University of Porto, Portugal


Jiazhong Zhang (editor)

School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi Province 710049, China

Fax: +86 29 82668723 Email:

The Evaluation of Forest Cultural Value Based on WTP: A Case Study in Diebu County of Gansu Province in China

Journal of Environmental Accounting and Management 6(3) (2018) 215--224 | DOI:10.5890/JEAM.2018.09.003

Ying Zhang$^{1}$, Xiaohong Zhou$^{2}$

$^{1}$ School of Economics and Management of Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China

$^{2}$ School of Forestry and Environment Studies of Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520, USA

Download Full Text PDF



Cultural value is regarded as an important component of forest ecosystem services, which has been received great attention to a certain extent for the relevant research in recent years. In this study, taking Diebu County of Gansu Province in China as an example, the impact factors of Willingness to Pay (WTP) of forest cultural value is analyzed by adopting Logistic Regression Model (LRM) and Contingent Valuation Method (CVM), and the value of forest culture in Diebu County is estimated. The result shows that WTP of forest cultural value in Diebu County is rather low, the percentage of people who are willing to pay only accounts for 35.29% of total survey population. Impact factors ofWTP for cultural value mainly contain the education level, professional knowledge, personal income and so on, among which the impact of educational level for WTP is least, and the personal annual income is largest. In addition, the personal annual income is also the most prominent impact factor for not willing to pay for forest cultural value. Mean WTP per capita for forest cultural value of Diebu County is at the range between 18.96 RMB/a and 53.81 RMB/a. The results are calculated according to the population and number of the travelers in 2016. With the evaluation, forest cultural value of Diebu County is about between 8.2741 million RMB and 23.4390 million RMB in that year. The discussion is also raised according to relevant results in the research.


The author gratefully acknowledges the support of National Key Research and Development Program (2016YFC0500905) and national statistical science research major project of the State Statistical Bureau (2017LD03) in China.


  1. [1]  Agnoletti, M. and Santoro, A. (2015), Cultural values and sustainable forest management: The case of Europe, Journal of Forest Research, 20(5), 438-444.
  2. [2]  Cai, D.G. (2002), Forest Culture Brief Research, World Forestry Research, 15(1), 12-18.
  3. [3]  Cardiff, T. (1988), Research of Forest Culture Policy, Tokyo University Press, Tokyo.
  4. [4]  Cardiff, T. (2000), Forest Policy and Forest Culturology, Forestry Economy, 1, 19-24.
  5. [5]  Chen, J. and Zhang, Z.C. (2013), About Forest Cultural Construction and Cultural Soft Strength Improvement, Guangxi Social Science, 6,159-161.
  6. [6]  Chen, J., Zheng, X.X., Zhou, C.X., and Ma, H. (2014), Beijing forest cultural communication study based on the requirements of travelers, Journal of Beijing Forestry University (Social Science Edition), 13(3), 29-33.
  7. [7]  Carson, R. (2012), Contingent valuation: A practical alternative when prices aren’t available, The Journal of Economic Perspectives, 26(4), 27-42.
  8. [8]  Chen, Y., Chen, Y.R., and Ma, W.B. (2011), Land Circulating and Concession Willingness Analysis of Residents Resettlement for the Reservoir based on Logistic Model - Survey for Residents Resettlement in Sichuan, Hunan, Hubei, Resource Science, 33(6), 1178-1185.
  9. [9]  Dan, X.Q. (2002), Social, Economic and Systematic Characteristics of Forest Culture, Zhongnan Forestry Survey Plan, 21(3), 58-61.
  10. [10]  FAO. (2004), Global forest resources assessment up date 2005-terms and definitions (final version), Forestry Department, Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, Forest Resources Assessment Programme, Rome.
  11. [11]  Ghosal, S. (2011), Pre-colonial and colonial forest culture in the presidency of Bengal, Human Geographies, 5(1), 107-116.
  12. [12]  Gendek, A., Zychowicz, W., and Powier˙za, M. (2012), Balance of managemental time and productivity of the outfit for forest culture tending, Annals of Warsaw University of Life Sciences-SGGW, 60, 103-109.
  13. [13]  Herndon, C.N., Uiterloo, M., Uremaru, A., Plotkin, M.J., Smith, G.M., and Jitan, J. (2009), Disease concepts and treatment by tribal healers of an Amazonian forest culture, Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 5, 27-28.
  14. [14]  Hu, P. (2014), Nationality and Value Analysis for Forest Culture in Sounthwest of Hunan, Hunan Social Science, 3,183- 186.
  15. [15]  Kong, Y. and Li, W.J. (2005), Establishing new views for forest valuation, forest culture, and forest management - the first session “Forest Culture Study Seminar” general introduction, Journal of Beijing Forestry University (Social Science Edition), 4(4), 3-6.
  16. [16]  Liang, Y.P., Liao, F.F., and Liao, Q.S. (2014), Theory of forest culture and forest construction in urban and rural areas, Hans Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 4, 15-18.
  17. [17]  Mayer, M. (2014), Can nature-based tourism benefits compensate for the costs of national parks? A study of the Bavarian Forest National Park, Germany, Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 22(4), 561-583.
  18. [18]  Nonaka, K., Sokosya, T., and Makino, Y. (2012), Living in the forests: Drawing life from the trees-the practice of collaboration by forestry and geography toward the creation of added value for the mountainous life style in Tsukechi-cho, Gifu, Journal for Regional Policy Studies, 5, 43-56.
  19. [19]  Rahman, S.A., Rahman, M.F., and Sunderland, T. (2014), Increasing Tree Cover in Degrading Landscapes: ‘Integration’ and ‘Intensification’ of Small holder Forest Culture in the Alutilla Valley, Matiranga, Bangladesh, Small-scale Forestry, 13, 237-249.
  20. [20]  Sills, E.O., Moore, S.E., Cubbage, F.W., McCarter, K.D., Holmes, T.P., andMercer, D.E. (2017), Trees At Work: Economic Accounting for Forest Ecosystem Services in the U.S. South, United States Department of Agriculture, Southern Research Station 200W.T.Weaver Blvd. Asheville, NC 28804, November 2017. file://C:/Users/lenovo/Documents/gtr srs226.pdf.
  21. [21]  Su, Z.R. and Su, X.T. (2004), Forest Culturology Brief Theory, Xuelin Press, Shanghai.
  22. [22]  Tyrvainen, L., Mantymaa, E., and Ovaskainen, V. (2014), Demand for enhanced forest amenities in private lands: The case of the Ruka-Kuusamo tourism area, Finland, Forest Policy and Economics, 47, 4-13.
  23. [23]  Tan, S.L., Zhang, H.J., and Qiu, G.W. (2015), Forest cultural specialty and its traveling development value research - based on the analysis of partial state forest parks in Guangdong province, Economy Review, 4, 19-20.
  24. [24]  UNDP. (2011), Towards a green economy pathways to Sustainable Development and Poverty Eradication, UNDP, New York.
  25. [25]  Vlami, V., Kokkoris, I.P., Zogaris, S., Cartalis, C., Kehayias, G., and Dimopoulos, P. (2017), Cultural landscapes and attributes of “culturalness” in protected areas: An exploratory assessment in Greece, Science of the Total Environment, 595(1), 229-243.
  26. [26]  Xu, D.W., Liu, M.Q., and Li, Y.W. (2007), Conditional value evaluation research of ecological systematic service of Huanghe River Basin - based on WTP measurement and calculation of Zhengzhou range of lower reach, Agricultural Engineering Journal, 6, 77-89.
  27. [27]  Zheng, X.X. (2001), Forest culture, forest aesthetics and forest management, Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 23(2), 93-94.