Skip Navigation Links
Journal of Environmental Accounting and Management
Dmitry Kovalevsky (editor), Jiazhong Zhang(editor)
Dmitry Kovalevsky (editor)

Climate Service Center Germany (GERICS), Helmholtz-Zentrum Hereon, Fischertwiete 1, 20095 Hamburg, Germany

Fax: +49 (0) 40 226338163 Email:

Jiazhong Zhang (editor)

School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi Province 710049, China

Fax: +86 29 82668723 Email:

Estimates of the Effectiveness for Urban Energy Conservation and Carbon Abatement Policies: The Case of Beijing City, China

Journal of Environmental Accounting and Management 6(3) (2018) 199--214 | DOI:10.5890/JEAM.2018.09.002

Junmei Hu$^{1}$, Gengyuan Liu$^{1}$,$^{2}$, Fanxin Meng$^{3}$,$^{4}$

$^{1}$ State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China

$^{2}$ Beijing Engineering Research Center for Watershed Environmental Restoration & Integrated Ecological Regulation, Beijing 100875, China

$^{3}$ Research Center for Eco-environmental Engineering, Dongguan University of Technology, Dongguan, 523808, China

$^{4}$ School of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 510006, China

Download Full Text PDF



Cities play an important role in tackling climate change, as they consume close to 2/3 of the world’s energy and account for more than 70% of global greenhouse gas emissions. To assess the effectiveness of urban energy conservation and carbon mitigation measures, a detailed Long Range Energy Alternatives Planning (LEAP) model is developed and applied to simulate a series of emission reduction measures. The developed LEAP model is also aimed at analyzing how these emission reduction measures change energy consumption and carbon emission from 2016 to 2050. Fifty scenarios were defined to describe the future energy strategies in relation to the development of Beijing city, including a ‘Business as Usual’ scenario, 42 sub-scenarios, 4 sectoral compound scenarios and 3 system compound emission reduction scenarios. The ‘Business as Usual’ scenario assumes that the government will do nothing to influence the long-term trends of urban energy demand. The 42 sub-scenarios reflect the effectiveness of singular measure including clean energy substitution, terminal technological innovation, industrial structural adjustment in three energy demand sector as well as external input of power scenario in transformation sector. Each singular measure has three A, B, C three levels, which represent different intensity of the measure. Sectoral compound scenarios show the integrated effectiveness of B-level measures which reflects the strength of the existing policy in each sector. The final effectiveness of all energy conservation and carbon mitigation measures of assorted level are presented in 3 system compound emission reduction scenarios. A further analysis of decoupling relationship between energy consumption and economy under system compound scenarios is discussed.


This work is supported by Sino-Italian Cooperation of China Natural Science Foundation (CNSC, grant No.7171101135) and the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation (MAECI, High Relevance Bilateral Projects), National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 41471466, 71673029), China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (2017M622701) and Research Start-Up Funds of DGUT (GC300501-15).


  1. [1]  Awopone, A.K., Zobaa, A.F., and Banuenumah,W. (2017), Techno-economic and environmental analysis of power generation expansion plan of ghana, Energy Policy, 104(May), 13-22.
  2. [2]  Bai, X.M, Shi, P.J., and Liu, Y.S. (2014), Society: realizing China’s urban dream, Nature News, 509(7499), 158.
  3. [3]  Basosi, R., Casazza, M., and Schnitzer, H. (2017), Energy policy within and beyond urban systems, Energy Policy, 100, 301-303.
  4. [4]  Casazza, M., Gilli, G., Piano, A., and Alessio, S. (2013), Thirty-years assessment of size-fractionated particle mass concentrations in a polluted urban area and its implications for the regulatory framework, Journal of Environmental Accounting and Management, 1(3), 259-267.
  5. [5]  Casazza, M. (2015), Possibility of secondary sub-micron aerosol mass concentrations forecasting: A case study toward the possibility of a future nowcasting approach, Journal of Environmental Accounting and Management, 3(1), 59-67.
  6. [6]  Casazza, M., Maurino, V., and Malandrino, M. (2016), Adult chronic exposure to neurotoxic metals associated with atmospheric aerosols: a case study in the urban area of Turin (NW Italy), Journal of Environmental Accounting and Management, 4(1), 85-98.
  7. [7]  Casazza, M., Lega, M., Liu, G., Ulgiati, S., and Endreny, T.A. (2018), Aerosol pollution, including eroded soils, intensifies cloud growth, precipitation, and soil erosion: A review, Journal of Cleaner Production, 189, 135-144.
  8. [8]  Chang, Z., Wu, H.X., Pan, K.X., Zhu, H.X., and Chen, J.M. (2017), Clean production pathways for regional powergeneration system under emission constraints: A case study of Shanghai, China, Journal of Cleaner Production, 143(February), 989-1000.
  9. [9]  Chen, G.W., Hadjikakou, M., and Wiedmann, T. (2017), Urban carbon transformations: unravelling spatial and intersectoral linkages for key city industries based on multi-region input–output analysis, Journal of Cleaner Production, 163, 224-240.
  10. [10]  Errico, A., Angelino, C.V., Cicala, L.G., Ferrara, C., Lega,M., Vallario, A., Parente, C., Masi, G., Gaetano, R., Scarpa, G., Amitrano, D., Ruello, G., Verdoliva, L., and Poggi, G. (2015), Detection of environmental hazards through the featurebased fusion of optical and SAR data: a case study in southern Italy, International Journal of Remote Sensing, 36(13), 3345-3367.
  11. [11]  Fan, J.L., Wang, J.X., Li, F.Y., Yu, H., and Zhang, X. (2017), Energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions of urban passenger transport in the internet era: A case study of Beijing, Journal of Cleaner Production, 165(November), 177- 189.
  12. [12]  Gargiulo, F., Persechino, G., Lega, M., and Errico, A. (2013), IDES project: a new effective tool for safety and security in the environment, In: Wang, G., Zomaya, A.Y.,Martinez Perez, G., Li, K. (eds.), International Conference on Algorithms and Architectures for Parallel Processing., Springer, Cham, pp. 201-208.
  13. [13]  Gupta, J.G., De, D., Gautam, A., Dhar, A., and Pandey, A. (2018), Introduction to Sustainable Energy, Transportation Technologies, and Policy, In Sustainable Energy and Transportation, 3-7, Energy, Environment, and Sustainability, Springer, Singapore.
  14. [14]  Handayani, K., Krozer, Y., and Filatova, T. (2017), Trade-Offs between electrification and climate change mitigation: an analysis of the Java-Bali power system in Indonesia, Applied Energy, 208(December), 1020-1037.
  15. [15]  Kachoee, M.S., Salimi, M., and Amidpour, M. (2018), The Long-term scenario and greenhouse gas effects cost-benefit analysis of Iran’s electricity sector, Energy, 143(January), 585-596.
  16. [16]  Lega,M. and Endreny, T. (2016),Quantifying the environmental impact of pollutant plumes from coastal rivers with remote sensing and river basin modelling, International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning, 11(5), 651-662.
  17. [17]  Lei, M., Yin, Z.H., Yu, X.W., and Deng, S.J. (2017), Carbon-weighted economic development performance and driving force analysis: Evidence from China, Energy Policy, 111(December), 179-192.
  18. [18]  Lin, J.Y., Cao, B., Cui, S.H., Wang, W., and Bai, X.M. (2010), Evaluating the effectiveness of urban energy conservation and GHG mitigation measures: The case of Xiamen city, China, Energy Policy, 38(9), 5123-5132.
  19. [19]  Lin, J.Y., Kang, J.F., Khanna, N., Shi, L.Y., Zhao, X.F., and Liao, J.F. (2018), Scenario analysis of urban GHG peak and mitigation co-benefits: A case study of Xiamen city, China, Journal of Cleaner Production 171(January), 972-983.
  20. [20]  Liu, Z. (2016), China’s carbon emissions report 2016,
  21. [21]  Liu, Z., Guan, D.B., Crawford-Brown, D., Zhang, Q., He, K.B., and Liu, J.G. (2013), Energy policy: A low-carbon road map for China, Nature 500(7461), 143.
  22. [22]  Miao, L. (2017), Examining the impact factors of urban residential energy consumption and CO2 emissions in China – evidence from city-level data, Ecological Indicators 73, 29-37.
  23. [23]  Moss, R.H., Edmonds, J.A., Hibbard, K.A., Manning, M.R., Rose, S.K., Van Vuuren, D.P., Timothy R Carter, Emori, S., Kainuma, M., Kram, T., Meehl, G.A., Mitchell, J.F.B., Nakicenovic, N., Riahi, K., Smith, S.J., Stouffer, R.J., Thomson, A.M., Weyant, J.P., and Wilbanks, T.J. (2010), The next generation of scenarios for climate change research and assessment, Nature, 463(7282), 747.
  24. [24]  Peng, J., Yu, B.J., Liao, H., andWei, Y.M. (2018),Marginal abatement costs of CO2 emissions in the thermal power sector: A regional empirical analysis from China, Journal of Cleaner Production 171(January), 163-174.
  25. [25]  Rosenzweig, C., Solecki, W.D., Romero-Lankao, P., Mehrotra, S., Dhakal, S. and Ibrahim, S.A. (2018), Climate Change and Cities: Second Assessment Report of the Urban Climate Change Research Network, Cambridge University Press.
  26. [26]  Singh, S. and Kennedy, C. (2015), Estimating future energy use and CO2 emissions of the world’s cities, Environmental Pollution, 203, 271-278.
  27. [27]  Solomon, S., Plattner, G.K., Knutti, R., and Friedlingstein, P. (2009), Irreversible climate change due to carbon dioxide emissions, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 106(6), 1704-1709.
  28. [28]  Su, M.R., Chen, B., Xing, T., Chen, C., and Yang, Z.F. (2012), Development of Low-Carbon City in China: Where Will It Go? Procedia Environmental Sciences, 18th Biennial ISEM Conference on Ecological Modelling for Global Change and Coupled Human and Natural System, 13 (January): 1143-1148.
  29. [29]  Tapio, P. (2005), Towards a theory of decoupling: degrees of decoupling in the EU and the case of road traffic in Finland between 1970 and 2001, Transport Policy, 12(2), 137-151.
  30. [30]  Wang, C., Engels, A., and Wang, Z.H. (2018), Overview of research on China’s transition to low-carbon development: the role of cities, technologies, industries and the energy system, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 81, 1350-1364.
  31. [31]  Wang, S.J. and Liu, X.P. (2017), China’s city-level energy-related CO2 emissions: Spatiotemporal patterns and driving forces, Applied Energy, 200, 204-214.
  32. [32]  Wang, S.J., Liu, X.P., Zhou, C.S., Hu, J.C., and Ou, J.P. (2017), Examining the impacts of socioeconomic factors, urban form, and transportation networks on CO2 emissions in China’s megacities, Applied Energy, 185, 189-200.
  33. [33]  Wang, Y. and Li, G.D. (2017), Mapping urban CO2 emissions using DMSP/OLS’ city lights satellite data in China, Environment & Planning A, 49(2), 189-194.
  34. [34]  Yang, D.W., Liu, B., Ma, W.J., Guo, Q.H., Li, F. and Yang, D.X. (2017), Sectoral energy-carbon nexus and low-carbon policy alternatives: A case study of Ningbo, China, Journal of Cleaner Production, 156(July), 480-490.
  35. [35]  Yu, H., Pan, S.Y., Tang, B.J., Mi, Z.F., Zhang, Y., andWei, Y.M. (2015), Urban energy consumption and CO2 emissions in Beijing: current and future, Energy Efficiency, 8(3), 527-543.
  36. [36]  Zhang, L., Sovacool, B.K., Ren, J.Z., and Ely, A. (2017), The dragon awakens: innovation, competition, and transition in the energy strategy of the People’s Republic of China, 1949-2017, Energy Policy, 108, 634-644.