Skip Navigation Links
Journal of Environmental Accounting and Management
António Mendes Lopes (editor), Jiazhong Zhang(editor)
António Mendes Lopes (editor)

University of Porto, Portugal


Jiazhong Zhang (editor)

School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi Province 710049, China

Fax: +86 29 82668723 Email:

Environmental Impact Assessment of An Urban Port: Noise Pollution Survey in the Port Area of Napoli (S Italy)

Journal of Environmental Accounting and Management 6(2) (2018) 125--133 | DOI:10.5890/JEAM.2018.06.004

Marco Casazza; Francesca Boggia; Gianmarco Serafino; Vincenzo Severino; Massimiliano Lega

Department of Engineering, University of Naples ‘Parthenope’, Centro Direzionale, Isola C4, 80143, Napoli, Italy

Download Full Text PDF



The quality of life, particularly in the urban environment, becomes degraded, due to a cumulative effect of multiple exposition to pollutants. A special case is represented by urban ports, due to the fact that multiple impacts are superimposed. Moreover, being the port connected to the surrounding urban context, the potential negative impacts are magnified by the high number of exposed citizens in the close vicinity. This is why appropriate monitoring actions constitute the basis to define strategic planning options toward a more livable environment in of port cities. Considering the specific case of noise pollution, due to the cost of monitoring tools, it is important to develop scientifically-sound methodological options to perform preliminary surveys, using available low-cost technologies. This choice has the purpose of minimizing the costs of monitoring, while maximizing its effectiveness. Considering the specific case study of the port area of Napoli (S Italy), this work refers to the use of a freeware, which can be downloaded and installed in a smartphone, with the purpose of performing geo-localized noise pollution surveys. In particular, after defining the quality of collected data through a preliminary laboratory inter-calibration, a series of field surveys were performed in 12 different points and measures were analyzed. Sound Pressure Level measures, which were found to be of higher quality, allowed to define two areas having different noise characteristics. Consequently, these areas could be disentangled in future monitoring operations, reducing the points of measure from 12 to 2. The obtained results suggest an option, which could be applied to other environmental parameters. Moreover, the quality of surveys could be further implemented through the use of aerial platforms, in order to obtain future 3D enhanced environmental scenarios assessment.


  1. [1]  Abbaspour,M., Karimi, E., Nassiri, P., Monazzam,M.R., and Taghavi, L. (2015), Hierarchal assessment of noise pollution in urban areas - A case study, Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 34, 95-103.
  2. [2]  Ariza-Villaverde, A.B., Jiménez-Hornero, F.J., and De Ravé, E.G. (2014), Influence of urban morphology on total noise pollution: Multifractal description, Science of The Total Environment, 472, 1-8.
  3. [3]  Babisch,W. (2006), Transportation noise and cardiovascular risk: updated review and synthesis of epidemiological studies indicate that the evidence has increased, Noise Health, 8, 1-29.
  4. [4]  Babisch,W., Pershagen, G., Selander, J., Houthuijs, D., Breugelmans, O., Cadum, E., Vigna-Taglianti, F., Katsouyanni, K., Haralabidis, A.S., Dimakopoulou, K., Sourtzi, P., Floud, S., and Hansell, A.L. (2013), Noise annoyance - A modifier of the association between noise level and cardiovascular health? Science of the Total Environment, 452, 50-57.
  5. [5]  Bart?miejski, R. (2016), Environmental Conflicts in Port Cities, Opuscula Sociologica, 4(18), 33-44.
  6. [6]  Casazza, M. (2015), Possibility of secondary sub-micron aerosol mass concentrations forecasting: A case study toward the possibility of a future nowcasting approach, Journal of Environmental Accounting and Management, 3(1), 59-67.
  7. [7]  Casazza, M., Varchetta, G., Pirozzi, N., Teta, R., Ulgiati, S., and Lega,M. (2018), A Survey Method Towards An Effective Emission MonitoringWithin The Urban Environment: A Case Study In The PortOf Naples (Italy), International Journal of Environmental Impacts, 1(8), 1-13.
  8. [8]  Castell, N., Dauge, F.R., Schneider, P., Vogt, M., Lerner, U., Fishbain, B., Broday, D., and Bartonova, A. (2017), Can commercial low-cost sensor platforms contribute to air quality monitoring and exposure estimates? Environment International, 99, 293-302.
  9. [9]  Cavallo, B., D'Apuzzo, L., and Squillante, M. (2015), A multi-criteria decision making method for sustainable development of Naples port city-area, Quality & Quantity, 49(4), 1647-1659.
  10. [10]  Commodore, A.,Wilson, S.,Muhammad,O., Svendsen, E., and Pearce, J. (2017), Community-based participatory research for the study of air pollution: a review of motivations, approaches, and outcomes, Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 189(8), 378.
  11. [11]  Cunha, D.G.F., Casali, S.P., de Falco, P.B., Thornhill, I., and Loiselle, S.A. (2017), The contribution of volunteer-based monitoring data to the assessment of harmful phytoplankton blooms in Brazilian urban streams, Science of The Total Environment, 584, 586-594.
  12. [12]  Errico, A., Angelino, C.V., Cicala, L., Persechino, G., Ferrara, C., Lega, M., Vallario, A., Parente, C., Masi, G., Gaetano, R., Scarpa, G., Amitrano, D., Ruello, G., Verdoliva, L., and Poggi, G. (2015), Detection of environmental hazards through the feature-based fusion of optical and SAR data: A case study in southern Italy, International Journal of Remote Sensing, 36(13), 3345-3367.
  13. [13]  Furukawa, K., Okutani, K., Nagira, K., Otsuka, T., Itoyama, K., Nakadai, K., and Okuno, H.G. (2013), Noise correlation matrix estimation for improving sound source localization by multirotor UAV. In Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), 2013 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on (pp. 3943-3948). IEEE.
  14. [14]  Haralabidis, A.S., Dimakopoulou, K., Vigna-Taglianti, F., Giampaolo, M., Borgini, A., Dudley, M.L., Pershagen, G., Bluhm, G., Houthuijs, D., Babisch, W., Velonakis, M., Katsouyanni, K., and Jarup, L. (2008), Acute effects of nighttime noise exposure on blood pressure in populations living near airports, European Heart Journal, 29, 658-664.
  15. [15]  Hoyle, B.S. (1988), Development Dynamics at the Port-City Interface. In: Brian S. Hoyle, B.S., Pinder, D.A., Husain, M.S. (eds.). Revitalizing the Waterfront. International Dimensions of Dockland Redevelopment. Belhaven Press: London/ New York.
  16. [16]  Ibekwe, T.S., Folorunsho, D.O., Dahilo, E.A., Gbujie, I.O., Nwegbu, M.M., and Nwaorgu, O.G. (2016), Evaluation of mobile smartphones app as a screening tool for environmental noise monitoring, Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, 13(2), D31-D36.
  17. [17]  Ising, H. and Kruppa, B. (2004), Health effects caused by noise: evidence in the literature from the past 25 years, Noise Health 6, 5-13.
  18. [18]  Lega,M. and Persechino, G. (2014), GIS and infrared aerial view: Advanced tools for the early detection of environmental violations, WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment, 180, 225-235.
  19. [19]  Lega,M., Ferrara, C., Persechino, G., and Bishop, P. (2014), Remote sensing in environmental police investigations: Aerial platforms and an innovative application of thermography to detect several illegal activities, Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 186(12), 8291-8830.
  20. [20]  Lega,M. and Endreny, T. (2016),Quantifying the environmental impact of pollutant plumes from coastal rivers with remote sensing and river basin modelling, International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning, 11(5), 651-662.
  21. [21]  Kardous, C.A. and Shaw, P.B. (2017), Evaluation of smartphone sound measurement applications, Noise & Vibration Worldwide, 48(1-2), 26-31.
  22. [22]  Maio, O., Endreny, T., and Lega,M. (2017), Remote sensing for environmental forensics: Thermal infrared images capture different surface temperatures in pollutant pools and dosed soils due to volatilization, Environmental Forensics, 18(2), 101-109.
  23. [23]  Murphy, E. and King, E.A. (2014), An assessment of residential exposure to environmental noise at a shipping port, Environment International, 63, 207-215.
  24. [24]  Murphy, E. and King, E.A. (2016), Smartphone-based noise mapping: Integrating sound level meter app data into the strategic noise mapping process, Science of The Total Environment, 562, 852-859.
  25. [25]  Muzet, A. (2007), Environmental noise, sleep and health, Sleep Medicine Reviews, 11, 135-142.
  26. [26]  Naguib, M. (2013), Living in a noisy world: indirect effects of noise on animal communication, Behaviour, 150(9-10), 1069-1084.
  27. [27]  Nebot, N., Rosa-Jiménez, C., Ninot, R.P., and Perea-Medina, B. (2017), Challenges for the future of ports. What can be learnt from the Spanish Mediterranean ports? Ocean & Coastal Management, 137, 165-174.
  28. [28]  Oiamo, T.H., Luginaah, I.N., and Baxter, J. (2015), Cumulative effects of noise and odour annoyances on environmental and health related quality of life, Social Science & Medicine, 146, 191-203.
  29. [29]  Prati, M.V., Costagliola, M.A., Quaranta, F., and Murena, F. (2015), Assessment of ambient air quality in the port of Naples, Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, 65(8), 970-979.
  30. [30]  Recio, A., Linares, C., Banegas, J.R., and Díaz, J. (2016), Road traffic noise effects on cardiovascular, respiratory, and metabolic health: An integrative model of biological mechanisms, Environmental Research, 146, 359-370.
  31. [31]  Sajid, M., Yang, Y.J., Kim, G.B., and Choi, K.H. (2016), Remote monitoring of environment using multi-sensor wireless node installed on quad-copter drone, In Robotics and Intelligent Sensors (IRIS), 2016 IEEE International Symposium on (pp. 213-216), IEEE.
  32. [32]  Sharma, A. and Gupta, D. (2014), Smartphone as a real-time and participatory data collection tool for civil engineers, International Journal of Foundations of Computer Science, 2(5), 22-27.
  33. [33]  Smith, A. (2017), Using iOS Devices for Noise and Vibration Measurements, Sound and Vibration, 51(3), 14-16.
  34. [34]  Snik, F., Rietjens, J.H.H., Apituley, A., Volten, H., Mijling, B., Di Noia, A., Heikamp, S., Heinsbroek, R.C., Hasekamp, O.P., Smit, J.M., Vonk, J., Stam, D.M., van Harten, G., de Boer, J., Keller, C.U., and 3187 iSPEX Citizen Scientists.(2014), Mapping atmospheric aerosols with a citizen science network of smartphone spectropolarimeters. Mapping atmospheric aerosols with a citizen science network of smartphone spectropolarimeters, Geophysical Research Letters, 41(20), 7351-7358.
  35. [35]  World Health Organization (1997), World Health Report: Prevention of Noise-Induced Hearing Loss, p. 55.
  36. [36]  Zhang, Y., Ma, R., Hu, M., Luo, J., Li, J., and Liang, Q. (2017), Combining citizen science and land use data to identify drivers of eutrophication in the Huangpu River system, Science of The Total Environment, 584, 651-664.
  37. [37]  Zijlema,W., Cai, Y., Doironde, D., Mbatchou, S., Fortier, I., Gulliver, J., Hooghce, K., Morley, D., Hodgson, S., Elliott, P., Key, T., Kongsgard, H., Hveem, K., Gaye, A., Burton, P., Hansell, A., Stolk, R., and Rosmalen, J. (2016), Road traffic noise, blood pressure and heart rate: Pooled analyses of harmonized data from 88,336 participants. Road traffic noise, blood pressure and heart rate: Pooled analyses of harmonized data from 88,336 participants, Environmental Research, 151, 804-813.