Skip Navigation Links
Journal of Environmental Accounting and Management
António Mendes Lopes (editor), Jiazhong Zhang(editor)
António Mendes Lopes (editor)

University of Porto, Portugal


Jiazhong Zhang (editor)

School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi Province 710049, China

Fax: +86 29 82668723 Email:

Accounting For Urban Carbon Dioxide: A Review

Journal of Environmental Accounting and Management 4(3) (2016) 339--351 | DOI:10.5890/JEAM.2016.09.007

Yan Zhang; Juan Li; Gengyuan Liu

State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China

Download Full Text PDF



Cities are the main contributors to the global climate change. Accounting for urban carbon sources and sinks is necessary for the development of low-carbon cities. This paper compares and analyses the carbon accounting standards by summarizing the research of urban carbon accounting items and methods, to serve as a reference for future studies of urban carbon accounting. Three carbon accounting standards are compared to analyse the differences in the applied scales and in the accounting emphasis. Carbon accounting items and methods are conducted based on artificial carbon sources, natural carbon sources and natural carbon sinks. Three suggestions are proposed to further develop urban carbon accounting. First, carbon emissions from human and soil respiration should be included in carbon source accounting. Second, because of the frequent interactions between cities and surrounding areas, the embodied carbon emission of goods and services imported to cities should be emphasized. Third, to increase the accuracy of urban carbon accounting, on site measurement should be reinforced to accumulate first-hand data of time series.


This work was supported by the National Key Research and Development Plan (No. 2016YFC0503005), by the Fund for Innovative Research Group of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (no.51421065), by the Program for New Century Excellent Talents in University (no. NCET-12-0059), by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (no.41571521, 41171068), and by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (no. 2015KJJCA09).


  1. [1]  Abreu, S.L., Godsey, C.B., Edwards, J.T. and Warren, J.G. (2011), Assessing carbon and nitrogen stocks of no-till systems in Oklahoma, Soil & Tillage Research 117, 28-33.
  2. [2]  Ammann, C., Spirig, C., Leifeld, J. and Neftel, A. (2009), Assessment of the nitrogen and carbon budget of two managed temperate grassland fields, Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 133, 150-162.
  3. [3]  Andrews, C.J. (2008), Greenhouse gas emissions along the rural-urban gradient, Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 51, 847-870.
  4. [4]  Baldasano, J.M, Soriano, C. and Boada, L. (1999), Emission inventory for greenhouse gases in the City of Barcelona, 1987-1996, Atmospheric Environment 33, 3765-3775.
  5. [5]  Batjes, N.H. (1996), Total carbon and nitrogen in the soils of the world, European Journal of Soil Science 47, 151-163.
  6. [6]  Beer, C., Reichstein, M., Tomelleri, E., Ciais, P., Jung, M., Carvalhais, N., Rödenbeck, C., Arain, M.A., Baldocchi, D., Bonan, G.B., Bondeau, A., Cescatti, A., Lasslop, G., Lindroth, A., Lomas, M., Luyssaert, S., Margolis, H., Oleson, K.W., Roupsard, O., Veenendaal, E., Viovy, N., Williams, C., Woodward, F.I. and Papale, D. (2010), Terrestrial gross carbon dioxide uptake: global distribution and covariation with climate, Science 329, 834-838.
  7. [7]  Bond-Lamberty, B. and Thomson, A. (2010), Temperature-associated increases in the global soil respiration record, Nature 464, 579- 582.
  8. [8]  Brown, S. and Lugo, A.E. (1982), The storage and production of organic matter in tropical forest and their role in the global carbon cycle, Biotropica 14, 161-187.
  9. [9]  Bruckman, V.J., Yan, S., Hochbichler, E. and Glatzel, G. (2011), Carbon pools and temporal dynamics along a rotation period in Quercus dominated high forest and coppice with standards stands, Forest Ecology and Management 262, 1853-1862.
  10. [10]  Cai, H. and Xie, S. (2007), Estimation of vehicular emission inventories in China from 1980 to 2005, Atmospheric Environment 41, 8963-8979.
  11. [11]  Carney, S., Green, N., Wood, R. and Read, R. (2009), Greenhouse gas emissions inventories for eighteen European regions, EU CO2 80/50 project stage 1: inventory formation, the greenhouse gas regional inventory protocol (GRIP),
  12. [12]  Carney, S. and Heald, M. (2008), GRIP for Europe pilot study: Greenhouse gas emissions in Glasgow & the Clyde Valley, a report to GCVSPJC & METREX,
  13. [13]  Carney, S., Watson, P. and Porter, R. (2008), The greenhouse gas regional inventory protocol: Sacramento Area Council of Governments, a report to GCVSPJC & METREX,
  14. [14]  Carney, S. and Shackley, S. (2009), The greenhouse gas regional inventory project (GRIP): Designing and employing a regional greenhouse gas measurement tool for stakeholder use, Energy Policy 37, 4293-4302.
  15. [15]  Carney, S. and Prestwood, E. (2008), The greenhouse gas regional inventory protocol: Aberdeen City and Shire Strategic Development Planning Authority, a report to GCVSPJC & METREX,
  16. [16]  Chen, X.X., Liu, S.G., Zhu, Z.L., Vogelmann, J., Li, Z.P. and Ohlen, D. (2011), Estimating aboveground forest biomass carbon and fire consumption in the U.S. Utah High Plateaus using data from the Forest Inventory and Analysis Program, Landsat, and LANDFIRE, Ecological Indicators 11, 140-148.
  17. [17]  Christen, A., Coops, N.C., Crawford, B.R., Kellett, R., Liss, K.N., Olchovski, I., Tooke, T.R., vander Laan, M. and Voogt, J.A. (2011), Validation of modeled carbon-dioxide emissions from an urban neighborhood with direct eddy-covariance measurements, Atmospheric Environment 45, 6057-6069.
  18. [18]  Crawford, B., Grimmond, C.S.B. and Christen, A. (2011), Five years of carbon dioxide fluxes measurements in a highly vegetated suburban area, Atmospheric Environment 45, 896-905.
  19. [19]  Czerepowicz, L., Caseb, B.S. and Doscher, C. (2012), Using satellite image data to estimate aboveground shelterbelt carbon stocks across an agricultural landscape, Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 156, 142-150.
  20. [20]  Dhakal, S. (2004), Urban energy use and greenhouse gas emissions in Asian mega-cities, Institute for Global Environmental Strategies, Kitakyushu, Japan.
  21. [21]  Dhakal, S. (2009), Urban energy use and carbon emissions from cities in China and policy implications, Energy Policy 37, 4208-4219.
  22. [22]  Dickinson, J. (2009), Inventory of New York City greenhouse gas emissions 2007, _report041007.pdf.
  23. [23]  Djomo, A.N., Knohl, A. and Gravenhorst, G. (2011), Estimations of total ecosystem carbon pools distribution and carbon biomass current annual increment of a moist tropical forest, Forest Ecology and Management 261, 1448-1459.
  24. [24]  Dodman, D. (2009), Blaming cities for climate change? An analysis of urban greenhouse gas emissions inventories, Environment & Urbanization 21, 185-201.
  25. [25]  EPA. (2012), California Greenhouse Gas Inventory for 2000-2009—by IPCC Category,
  26. [26]  Escobedo, F., Varela, S., Zhao, M., Wagner, J.E. and Zipperer, W. (2010), Analyzing the efficacy of subtropical urban forests in offsetting carbon emissions from cities, Environmental Science and Policy 13, 362-372.
  27. [27]  Fang, J.Y., Chen, A.P., Peng, C.H., Zhao, S.Q. and Ci, L.J. (2001), Changes in forest biomass carbon storage in China between 1949 and 1998, Science 292, 2320-2322.
  28. [28]  Fang, J.Y., Chen, A.P., Zhao, S.Q. and Ci, L.J. (2002), Estimating biomass carbon of China's forests: supplementary notes on report published in Science (291: 2320-2322) by Fang et al. (2001), Acta Phytoecologica Sinica 26, 243-249. (in Chinese)
  29. [29]  Fang, J.Y., Guo, Z.D., Piao, S.L. and Chen, A.P. (2007), Estimation of carbon sink of Chinese terrestrial vegetation from 1981 to 2000, Science in China Ser. D Earth Science 37, 804-812. (in Chinese)
  30. [30]  Fang, J.Y., Liu, G.H, Zhu, B., Wang, X.K. and Liu, S.H. (2006), The carbon cycle of three types of temperate forest ecosystems in Dongling Mountain, Beijing, Science in China Ser. D Earth Science 36, 533-543. (in Chinese)
  31. [31]  Fang, J.Y., Wang, G.G., Liu, G.H. and Xu, S.L. (1998), Forest biomass of China: an estimation based on the biomass-volume relationship, Ecological Applications 8, 1084-1091.
  32. [32]  Glaeser, E.L. and Kahn, M.E. (2010), The greenness of cities: carbon dioxide emissions and urban development, Journal of Urban Economics 67, 404-418.
  33. [33]  Grimmond, C.S.B., King, T.S., Cropley, F.D., Nowak, D.J. and Souch, C. (2002), Local-scale fluxes of carbon dioxide in urban environments: methodological challenges and results from Chicago, Environmental Pollution 116, 243-254.
  34. [34]  Guo, S., Shao, L., Chen, H., Li, Z., Liu, J.B., Xu, F.X., Li, J.S., Han, M.Y., Meng, J., Chen, Z.M. and Li, S.C. (2012), Inventory and input-output analysis of CO2 emissions by fossil fuel consumption in Beijing 2007, Ecological Informatics 12, 93-100.
  35. [35]  Guo, Z.D., Fang, J.Y., Pan, Y.D. and Birdsey, R. (2009), Inventory-based estimates of forest biomass carbon stocks in China: a comparison of three methods, Forest Ecological and Management 259, 1225-1231.
  36. [36]  Gurjar, B.R., van Aardenne, J.A., Lelieveld, J. and Mohan, M. (2004), Emission estimates and trends (1990-2000) for megacity Delhi and implications, Atmospheric Environment 38, 5663-5681.
  37. [37]  Harvey, L.D.D. (1993), Tackling urban CO2 emissions in Toronto, Environment 35, 16-24.
  38. [38]  Hillman, T. and Ramaswami, A. (2010), Greenhouse gas emission footprints and energy use benchmarks for eight U.S. cities, Environmental Science &Technology 44, 1902-1910.
  39. [39]  Hu, H.F. and Wang, G.G. (2008), Changes in forest biomass carbon storage in the South Carolina Piedmont between 1936 and 2005, Forest Ecology and Management 255, 1400-1408.
  40. [40]  Hupp, L. (2008), Baseline Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory for Municipal Operations in Urban Kodiak, http:// 20 Report.pdf.
  41. [41]  Hutyra, L.R., Yoon, B., Hepinstall-Cymerman, J. and Albertid, M. (2011), Carbon consequences of land cover change and expansion of urban lands: A case study in the Seattle metropolitan region, Landscape and Urban Planning 103, 83-93.
  42. [42]  ICLEI. (2008), Counting Carbon: ICLEI's Greenhouse Gas Inventory, http://siteresources. INTUWM/Resources/340232-1212696627296/Counting_Carbon_6-5-08.pdf.
  43. [43]  IPCC. (2006), IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, http://www.ipcc-nggip. 2006gl/.
  44. [44]  Janssens, I.A., Freibauer, A., Ciais, P., Smith, P., Nabuurs, G.J., Folberth, G., Schlamadinger, B., Hutjes, W.A., Ceulemans, R., Schulze, E.D., Valentini, R. and Dolman, A.J. (2003), Europe's terrestrial biosphere absorbs 7 to 12% of European anthropogenic CO2 emissions, Science 300, 1538-1542.
  45. [45]  Johnson1, A.D. and Gerhold, H.D. (2003), Carbon storage by urban tree cultivars, in roots and above-ground, Urban Forestry and Urban Greening 2, 65-72.
  46. [46]  Ju, L.P. (2011), Evaluation and prediction of city greenhouse emission—a case study of Chongqing, Dissertation for Master's Degree, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China. (in Chinese)
  47. [47]  Kamp, J.V.D., Yassir, I. and Buurman, P. (2009), Soil carbon changes upon secondary succession in Imperata grasslands (East Kalimantan, Indonesia), Geoderma 149, 76-83.
  48. [48]  Kaneko, S., Nakayama, H. and Wu, L. (2003), Comparative study on indirect energy demand, supply and corresponding CO2 emission of Asian mega-cities, Proceedings of IGES/APN International Workshop on Policy Integration towards Sustainable Energy Use for Cities in Asia, 4-5 February 2003, East West Center, Honolulu, Hawaii.
  49. [49]  Kennedy, C., Steinberger, J., Gasson, B., Hansen, Y., Hillman, T., Havránek, M., Pataki, D., Phdungsilp, A., Ramaswami, A. and Mendez, G.V. (2010), Methodology for inventorying greenhouse gas emissions from global cities, Energy Policy 38, 4828-4837.
  50. [50]  Kennedy, C.A., Ramaswami, A., Carney, S. and Dhakal, S. (2009a), Greenhouse gas emission baselines for global cities and metropolitan regions, Paper presented at the 5th Urban Research Symposium: Cities and Climate Change-Responding to an Urgent Agenda, Marseille, June, 28-30, 2009.
  51. [51]  Kennedy, C., Steinberger, J., Gasson, B., Hillman, T., Havránek, M., Pataki, D., Phdungsilp, A., Ramaswami, A. and Villalba Mendez, G. (2009b), Greenhouse gas emissions from global cities, Environmental Science &Technology 43, 7297-7302.
  52. [52]  Kling, S. (2008), Greenhouse gas inventory report (2000 and 2007): city of Clearwater,
  53. [53]  Koerner, B. and Klopatek, J. (2002), Anthropogenic and natural CO2 emission sources in an arid urban environment, Environmental Pollution 116, 45-51.
  54. [54]  Lal, R. (2002), Soil carbon dynamics in cropland and rangeland, Environmental Pollution 116, 353-362.
  55. [55]  Larsen, H.N. and Hertwich, E.G. (2009), The case for consumption-based accounting of greenhouse gas emissions to promote local climate action, Environmental Science &Technology 12, 791-798.
  56. [56]  Lemon, M., Foley, P. and Gary, F. (2009), Greenhouse gas inventory for the city of Bloomington, Indiana: footprint, projections, and recommendations, application/pdf/5047.pdf.
  57. [57]  Li, M.M., Zhang, X.C., Pang, G.W. and Han, F.P. (2013), The estimation of soil organic carbon distribution and storage in a small catchment area of the Loess Plateau, Catena 101, 11-16.
  58. [58]  Liu, Z., Geng, Y., Lindner, S. and Guan, D.B. (2012a), Uncovering China's greenhouse gas emission from regional and sectoral perspectives, Energy 45, 1-10.
  59. [59]  Liu, Z., Liang, S., Geng, Y., Xue, B., Xi, F.M., Pan, Y., Zhang, T.Z. and Fujita, T. (2012b), Features, trajectories and driving forces for energy-related GHG emissions from Chinese mega cites: The case of Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai and Chongqing, Energy 37, 245-254.
  60. [60]  Lorenz, K. and Lal, R. (2009), Biogeochemical C and N cycles in urban soils, Environment International 35, 1-8.
  61. [61]  Lun, F., Li, W.H. and Liu, Y. (2012), Complete forest carbon cycle and budget in China, 1999-2008, Forest Ecology and Management 264, 81-89.
  62. [62]  Luyssaert, S., Inglima, I., Jung, M., Richardson, A. D., Reichstein, M., Papale, D., Piao, S. L., Schulzes, E. -D., Wingate, L., Matteucci, G., Aragao, L., Aubinet, M., Beers, C., Bernhofer, C., Black, K. G., Bonal, D., Bonnefond, J. -M., Chambers, J., Ciais, P., Cook, B., Davis, K. J., Dolman, A. J., Gielen, B., Goulden, M., Grace, J., Granier, A., Grelle, A., Griffis, T., Gruenwald, T., Guidolotti, G., Hanson, P. J., Harding, R., Hollinger, D. Y., Hutyra, L. R., Kolar, P., Kruijt, B., Kutsch, W., Lagergren, F., Laurila, T., Law, B. E., Le Maire, G., Lindroth, A., Loustau, D., Malhi, Y., Mateus, J., Migliavacca, M., Misson, L., Montagnani, L., Moncrieff, J., Moors, E., Munger, J. W., Nikinmaa, E., Ollinger, S. V., Pita, G., Rebmann, C., Roupsard, O., Saigusa, N., Sanz, M.J., Seufert, G., Sierra, C., Smith, M.L., Tang, J., Valentini, R., Vesala, T. and Janssens, I.A. (2007), CO2 balance of boreal, temperate, and tropical forests derived from a global database, Global Change Biology 13, 2509-2537.
  63. [63]  Ma, W.H. Fang, J.Y., Yang, Y.H. and Mohammat, A. (2010), Biomass carbon stocks and their changes in northern China's grasslands during 1982-2006, Science in China. Series C: Life Sciences 40, 632-641. (in Chinese)
  64. [64]  Marek, M.V., Janouš, D., Taufarová, K., Havránková, K., Pavelka, M., Kaplan, V. and Marková, I. (2011), Carbon exchange between ecosystems and atmosphere in the Czech Republic is affected by climate factors, Environmental Pollution 159, 1035-1039.
  65. [65]  McGraw, J., Haas, P., Young, L. and Evens, A. (2010), Greenhouse gas emissions in Chicago: emissions inventories and reduction strategies for Chicago and its Metropolitan Region, Journal of Great Lakes Research 36, 106-114.
  66. [66]  Moriwaki, R. and Kanda, M. (2004), Seasonal and diurnal fluxes of radiation, heat, water vapour, and CO2 over a suburban area, Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology 43, 1700-1710.
  67. [67]  Myeong, S., Nowak, D.J. and Duggin, M.J. (2006), A temporal analysis of urban forest carbon storage using remote sensing, Remote Sensing of Environment 101, 277-282.
  68. [68]  Ni, J. (2002), Carbon storage in grasslands of China, Journal of Arid Environments 50, 205-218.
  69. [69]  Norman, J., MacLean, H.L. and Kennedy, C.A. (2006), Comparing high and low residential density: life-cycle analysis of energy use and greenhouse gas emissions, Journal of Urban Planning and Development 132, 10-21.
  70. [70]  Nowak, D.J. and Crane, D.E. (2002). Carbon storage and sequestration by urban trees in the USA, Environmental Pollution 116, 381- 389.
  71. [71]  Ostle, N.J., Levy, P.E., Evans, C.D. and Smith, P. (2009), UK land use and soil carbon sequestration, Land Use Policy 26, 274-283.
  72. [72]  Ou, X.M., Zhang, X.L. and Chang, S.Y. (2010), Alternative fuel buses currently in use in China: Life-cycle fossil energy use, GHG emissions and policy recommendations, Energy Policy 38, 406-418.
  73. [73]  Pataki, D.E., Xu, T., Luo, Y.Q. and Ehleringer, J.R. (2007), Inferring biogenic and anthropogenic carbon dioxide sources across an urban to rural gradient, Oecologia 152, 307-322.
  74. [74]  Peters, G.P. (2010), Carbon footprints and embodied carbon at multiple scales, Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 2, 245-250.
  75. [75]  Piao, S.L, Fang, J.Y, Ciais, P., Peylin, P., Huang, Y., Sitch, S. and Wang, T. (2009), The carbon balance of terrestrial ecosystems in China, Nature 458, 1009-1013.
  76. [76]  Piao, S.L, Fang, J.Y, He, J.S. and Xiao, Y. (2004), Spatial distribution of grassland biomass in China, Acta Phytoecologica Sinica 28, 491-498. (in Chinese)
  77. [77]  Ramaswami, A., Hillman, T., Janson, B., Reiner, M. and Thomas, G. (2008), A demand-centered, hybrid life cycle methodology for city-scale greenhouse gas emissions, Environmental Science &Technology 42, 6455-6461.
  78. [78]  Rayner, P.J., Raupach, M.R., Paget, M., Peylin, P. and Koffi, E. (2010), A new global gridded data set of CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion: Methodology and evaluation, Journal of geophysical research 115, 1-11.
  79. [79]  Rittenhouse, C.D. and Rissman, A.R. (2012), Forest cover, carbon sequestration, and wildlife habitat: policy review and modeling of tradeoffs among land-use change scenarios, Environmental Science and policy 21, 94-105.
  80. [80]  Rodeghiero, M., Tonolli, S., Vescovo, L., Gianelle, D., Cescatti, A. and Sottocornola, M. (2010), INFOCARB: A regional scale forest carbon inventory (Provincia Autonoma di Trento, Southern Italian Alps), Forest Ecology and Management 259, 1093-1101.
  81. [81]  Rohrman, F.A., Steigerwald, B.J. and Ludwig, J.H. (1967), Industrial emissions of carbon dioxide in the United States: A Projection, Science 156, 931-932.
  82. [82]  Schmidt Dubeux, C.B. and La Rovere, E.L. (2007), Local perspectives in the control of greenhouse gas emissions—The case of Rio de Janeiro, Cities 24,353-364.
  83. [83]  Schulz, N.B. (2010), Delving into the carbon footprints of Singapore—comparing direct and indirect greenhouse gas emissions of a small and open economic system, Energy Policy 38, 4848-4855.
  84. [84]  Smith, P. and Fang, C.M. (2010), A warm response by soils, Nature 464, 499-500.
  85. [85]  Soussana, J. F., Allard, V., Pilegaard, K., Ambus, P., Amman, C., Campbell, C., Ceschia, E., Clifton-Brown, J., Czobel, S., Domingues, R., Flechard, C., Fuhrer, J., Hensen, A., Horvath, L., Jones, M., Kasper, G., Martin, C., Nagy, Z., Neftel, A., Raschi, A., Baronti, S., Rees, R. M., Skiba, U., Stefani, P., Manca, G., Sutton, M., Tubaf, Z. and Valentini, R. (2007), Full accounting of the greenhouse gas (CO2, N2O, CH4) budget of nine European grassland sites, Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 121, 121-134.
  86. [86]  Stoécio, M.F., Ogle, S.M., Cerri, C.C. and Cerri, E.P. (2010), Changes in soil organic carbon storage under different agricultural management systems in the Southwest Amazon Region of Brazil, Soil & Tillage Research 106, 177-184.
  87. [87]  Sugar, L. (2010), Global Cities and their Response to Climate Change, Dissertation for Master's Degree, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.
  88. [88]  Suh, S., Lenzen, M., Treloar, G.J., Hondo, H., Horvath, A., Huppes, G., Jolliet, O., Klann, U., Krewitt, W., Moriguchi, Y., Munksgaard, J. and Norris, G. (2004), System boundary selection in life-cycle inventories using hybrid approaches, Environmental Science &Technology 38, 657-664.
  89. [89]  Svirejeva-Hopkins, A. and Schellnhuber, H.J. (2008). Urban expansion and its contribution to the regional carbon emissions: Using the model based on the population density distribution, Ecological Modelling 216, 208-216.
  90. [90]  Svirejeva-Hopkins, A., Schellnhuber, H.J. and Pomaz, V.L. (2004), Urbanised territories as a specific component of the Global Carbon Cycle, Ecological Modelling 173, 295-312.
  91. [91]  Wang, G.X., Qian, J., Cheng, G.D. and Lai, Y.M. (2002), Soil organic carbon pool of grassland soils on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and its global implication, The Science of the Total Environment 291, 207-217.
  92. [92]  Wang, H.K., Zhang, R.R. and Bi, J. (2011), Carbon accounting for Chinese cities-A case of Wuxi City, China Environmental Science 31, 1029-1038. (in Chinese)
  93. [93]  Weishampel, P., Kolka, R. and King, J.Y. (2009), Carbon pools and productivity in a 1-km2 heterogeneous forest and peatland mosaic in Minnesota, USA, Forest Ecology and Management 257, 747-754.
  94. [94]  Wiedmann, T. (2009), A review of recent multi-region input-output models used for consumption-based emissions and resource accounting, Ecological Economics 69, 211-222.
  95. [95]  WRI/WBCSD. (2009), The greenhouse gas protocol: a corporate accounting and reporting standard: revised edition,
  96. [96]  Wu, J. and Bauer, M.E. (2012), Estimating net primary production of turfgrass in an urban-suburban landscape with QuickBird imagery, Remote Sensing 4, 849-866.
  97. [97]  Wynn, J.G., Bird, M.I., Vellen, L., Grand-Clement, E., Carter, J. and Berry, S.L. (2006), Continental-scale measurement of the soil organic carbon pool with climatic, edaphic, and biotic controls, Global Biogeochemical Cycles 20, 1-12.
  98. [98]  Xi, F.M., Geng, Y., Chen, X.D., Zhang, Y.S., Wang, X.B., Xue, B., Dong, H.J., Liu, Z., Ren, W.X., Fujita, T. and Zhu, Q.H. (2011), Contributing to local policy making on GHG emission reduction through inventorying and attribution: A case study of Shenyang, China, Energy Policy 39, 5999-6010.
  99. [99]  Xin, X.P., Zhang, B.H., Li, G., Zhang, H.B., Chen, B.R. and Yang, G.X. (2009), Variation in spatial pattern of grassland biomass in China from 1982 to 2003, Journal of Natural Resources 24, 1582-1592. (in Chinese)
  100. [100]  Xu, S. (2011), Carbon accounting and space distribution for the cities in China—a case study of Nanjing City, Dissertation for Master's Degree, Nanjing University, Nanjing, China. (in Chinese)
  101. [101]  Yang, L., Pan, J., Shao, Y., Chen, J.M., Ju, W.M., Shi, X. and Yuan, S. (2007), Soil organic carbon decomposition and carbon pools in temperate and sub-tropical forests in China, Journal of Environmental Management 85, 690-695.
  102. [102]  Yu, W., Pagani, R. and Huang, L. (2012), CO2 emission inventories for Chinese cities in highly urbanized areas compared with European cities, Energy Policy 47, 298-308.
  103. [103]  Zhang, J.P., Qin, Y.C., Zhang, Y. and Zhang, L.J. (2010), Measurement of urban CO2 emission structure and low-carbon standard—A case study for Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai and Chongqing City, Scientia Geographica Sinica 30, 874-879. (in Chinese)
  104. [104]  Zhang, J.Y., Zhang, Y., Yang, Z.F., Fath, B.D. and Li, S.S. (2012a), Estimation of energy-related carbon emissions in Beijing and factor decomposition analysis, Ecological Modelling 252, 258-265.
  105. [105]  Zhang, Y., Zhang, J.Y., Yang, Z.F. and Li, J. (2012b), Analysis of the distribution and evolution of energy supply and demand centers of gravity in China, Energy Policy 49, 695-706.
  106. [106]  Zhang, Y., Zhang, J.Y., Yang, Z.F. and Li, S.S. (2011), Regional differences in the factors that influence China's energy-related carbon emissions, and potential mitigation strategies, Energy Policy 39, 7712-7718.
  107. [107]  Zhao, M.F., Xiang, W.H., Peng, C.H. and Tian, D.L. (2009), Simulating age-related changes in carbon storage and allocation in a Chinese fir plantation growing in southern China using the 3-PG model, Forest Ecology and Management 257, 1520-1531.
  108. [108]  Zhao, M., Kong, Z.H., Escobedo, F.J. and Gao, J. (2010), Impacts of urban forests on offsetting carbon emissions from industrial energy use in Hangzhou, China, Journal of Environmental Management 91, 807-813.