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Journal of Environmental Accounting and Management
António Mendes Lopes (editor), Jiazhong Zhang(editor)
António Mendes Lopes (editor)

University of Porto, Portugal


Jiazhong Zhang (editor)

School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi Province 710049, China

Fax: +86 29 82668723 Email:

Wind Resource Assessment in Europe Using Emergy

Journal of Environmental Accounting and Management 2(4) (2014) 347--366 | DOI:10.5890/JEAM.2014.12.006

Subodh Paudel$^{1}$,$^{2}$, Massimo Santarelli$^{3}$, Viktoria Martin$^{4}$, Bruno Lacarrière$^{1}$, Olivier Le Corre$^{1}$

$^{1}$ Department of Energy Systems and Environment, Ecole des Mines de Nantes, GEPEA – CNRS 6144, France

$^{2}$ Department of Electrical Engineering, Eidhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands

$^{3}$ Department of Energy, Politecnico di Torino, Italy

$^{4}$ Department of Energy Technology, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden

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In a context of increasing use of renewable sources, it is of importance to correctly evaluate the actual sustainability of their implementation. Emergy analysis is one of the possible methods useful for such an assessment. This work aims to demonstrate how the emergy approach can be used to assess the sustainability of wind energy resource in Europe. The Emergy Index of Sustainability (EIS) and the Emergy Yield Ratio (EYR) are used to analyze 90 stations of European regions for three types of wind turbines. To do so, the simplified Chou wind turbine model is used for different set of parameters as: nominal power and size of the wind turbines, and cut-in and cut-out wind speeds. Based on the calculation of the emergy indices, a mapping is proposed to identify the most appropriate locations for an implementation of wind turbines in European regions.The influence of the wind turbine type on the sustainability is also analyzed, in link with the local wind resource. Thus, it is concluded that the emergy sustainability indices are sensitive to the wind turbine design parameters (size, cut-in and cut-outwind speed).


This research has been conducted in collaboration with Mines Nantes, Technische Universitet Eindhoven, funded through Erasmus Mundus Joint Doctoral Programme SELECT+, the support of which is gratefully acknowledged.


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