Skip Navigation Links
Journal of Applied Nonlinear Dynamics
Miguel A. F. Sanjuan (editor), Albert C.J. Luo (editor)
Miguel A. F. Sanjuan (editor)

Department of Physics, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, 28933 Mostoles, Madrid, Spain


Albert C.J. Luo (editor)

Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Southern Illinois University Ed-wardsville, IL 62026-1805, USA

Fax: +1 618 650 2555 Email:

Implementation of Steering Process For Labriform Swimming Robot Based on Differential Drive Principle

Journal of Applied Nonlinear Dynamics 10(4) (2021) 721--737 | DOI:10.5890/JAND.2021.12.011

Farah Abbas Naser , Mofeed Turky Rashid

Electrical Engineering Department, University of Basrah, Basrah, Iraq

Download Full Text PDF



The aim of this study is to develop a swimming robot with good steering performance, in which the steering behavior is achieved by one degree of freedom (1-DOF) represented by a two concave-shaped pectoral fins. The steering mechanism adopted here based on differential drive principle. This principle is carried out by varying the right/left fins velocities. Different radii have been achieved with four different cases of velocities. The proposed design has been validated theoretically via Solidworks{\textregistered} platform and proved practically in a physical swimming pool. A minimum turning radius achieved is 0.40 of body length (BL).


  1. [1]  Li, Z., Ge, L., Xu, W., and Du, Y. (2018), Turning characteristics of biomimetic robotic fish driven by two degrees of freedom of pectoral fins and flexible body/caudal fin, International Journal of Advanced Robotic Systems 15, 1-12.
  2. [2]  Salum\"{a}e, T., Chemori, A., and Kruusmaa, M. (2019), Motion control of a hovering biomimetic fourfin underwater robot, IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 44, 54-71.
  3. [3]  Ryuh, Y.S., Yang, G.H., Liu, J., and Hu, H. (2015), A school of robotic fish for mariculture monitoring in the sea coast, Journal of Bionic Engineering, 12, 37-46.
  4. [4]  Kohl, A., Pettersen, K., Kelasidi, E., and Gravdahl, J. (2016), Planar path following of underwater snake robots in the presence of ocean currents, IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters, 1, 383-390.
  5. [5]  Lock, R.J., Vaidyanathan, R., Burgess, S.C., and Loveless, J. (2010), Development of a biologically inspired multi-modal wing model for aerial-aquatic robotic vehicles through empirical and numerical modelling of the common guillemot, uria aalge, Bioinspiration {$\&$ biomimetics} 5, 1-15.
  6. [6]  Fish, F. (2019), Advantages of aquatic animals as models for bio-inspired drones over present AUV technology, Bioinspiration {$\&$ Biomimetics}, 15.
  7. [7]  Licht, S. and Durham, N. (2012), Biomimetic robots for environmental monitoring in the surf zone & in very shallow water, in IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, Vilamoura-Algarve, Portugal.
  8. [8]  Yao, G., Liang, J., Wang, T., Yang, X., Shen, Q., Zhang, Y., Wu, H., and Tian, W. (2013), Development of a turtle-like underwater vehicle using central pattern generator, In: 2013 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Biomimetics (ROBIO), pp. 44-49.
  9. [9]  Geder, J.D., Ramamurti, R., Edwards, D., Young, T., and Pruessner, M. (2014), Development of a robotic fin for hydrodynamic propulsion and aerodynamic control, In: Oceans-St. Johns, 1-7.
  10. [10]  Siegenthaler, C., Pradalier, C., Gunther, F., Hitz, G., and Siegwart, R. (2013), System integration and fin trajectory design for a robotic sea-turtle, in Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), 2013 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on. Tokyo, Japan: IEEE, pp. 3790-3795.
  11. [11]  Kahn, J.C., Peretz, D.J., and Tangorra, J.L. (2015), Predicting propulsive forces using distributed sensors in a compliant, high DOF, robotic fin, Bioinspir. Biomim., 10.
  12. [12]  Tangorra, J.L., Esposito, C.J., and Lauder, G.V. (2009), Biorobotic fins for investigations of fish locomotion, Proceedings of the IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, St. Louis, MO, pp. 2120-2125, USA.
  13. [13]  Tan, X., Carpenter, M., Thon, J., and Alequin-Ramos, F. (2010), Analytical modeling and experimental studies of robotic fish turning, IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), Anchorage, AK, May 3-7, pp. 102-108.
  14. [14]  Ye, Z., Hou, P., and Chen, Z. (2017), 2D maneuverable robotic fish propelledby multiple ionic polymer--metal composite artificial fins, Int. J. Intell. Rob. Appl., 2, pp. 195-208.
  15. [15]  Behbahani, S.B., Wang, J., and Tan, X. (2013), A dynamic model for robotic fish with flexible pectoral fins, IEEE/ASME International Conference on Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics (AIM), pp. 1552-1557.
  16. [16]  Behbahani, S.B. and Tan, X. (2017), Role of pectoral fin flexibility in robotic fish performance, J. Nonlinear Sci., 27, pp. 1155-1181.
  17. [17]  Behbahani, S.B. and Tan, X. (2016), Bio-inspired flexible joints with passive feathering for robotic fish pectoral fins, Bioinspiration {$\&$ Biomimetics} 11, (2016).
  18. [18]  Behbahani, S.B. and Tan, X. (2016), Design and modeling of flexible passive rowing joint for robotic fish pectoral fins, In: IEEE Trans. Robot, pp. 1119-1132.
  19. [19]  Sitorus, P.E., Nazaruddin, Y.Y., Leksono, E., and Budiyono, A. (2009), Design and implementation of paired pectoral fins locomotion of labriform fish applied to a fish robot, Journal of Bionic Engineering, 6, pp. 37-45.
  20. [20]  Pham, V.A., Nguyen, T.T., Lee, B.R. and Vo, T.Q. (2019), Dynamic analysis of a robotic fish propelled by flexible folding pectoral fins, Robotica: page 1 of 20. {\copyright Cambridge University Press}.
  21. [21] Chen, Z., Hou, P., and Ye, Z. (2019), Robotic fish propelled by a Servo Motor and ionic polymer-metal composite hybrid tail, Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement, and Control, 141.
  22. [22]  Naser, F.A. and Rashid, M. (2019), Design, modeling, and experimental validation of a concave-shape pectoral fin of labriform-mode swimming robot, Engineering Reports, 1, 1-17.
  23. [23]  Naser, F.A. and Rashid, M. (2019), Effect of reynold number and angle of attack on the hydrodynamic forces generated from a bionic concave pectoral fins, In: The fourth scientific conference for engineering and postgraduate research, pp. 1-14.
  24. [24]  Naser, F.A. and Rashid, M. (2020), Design and realization of labriform mode swimming robot based on concave pectoral fins, Journal of Applied Nonlinear Dynamics, in press.
  25. [25]  Naser, F.A. and Rashid, M. (2020), The influence of concave pectoral fin morphology in the performance of labriform swimming robot, Iraqi Journal for Electrical and Electronic Engineering, {DOI: 10.37917/ijeee.16.1.7.}
  26. [26]  Antonelli, G. (2013), Underwater robots motion and force control of vehicle-manipulator systems, Springer tracts in advance robotics.
  27. [27]  Chen, C.W., Chen, Y., and Cai, Q. (2019), Hydrodynamic-interaction analysis of an autonomous underwater hovering vehicle and ship with wave effects, Symmetry, 11,
  28. [28]  Cely, J.S., Saltaren, R., Portilla, G., Yakrangi, O., and Barroso, A.R. (2019), Experimental and computational methodology for the determination of hydrodynamic coefficients based on free decay test: application to conception and control of underwater robots, Sensors, 19.
  29. [29]  Fossen, T.I. (1994), Guidance and control of ocean vehicles, 1st ed., Chichster, New-York, Aug., Wiely.
  30. [30]  Dudek, G. and Jenkin, M.R.M. (2000), Computational principles of mobile robotics, Engineering, Computer Science, DOI:10.1108/ir.2001.