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Journal of Applied Nonlinear Dynamics
Miguel A. F. Sanjuan (editor), Albert C.J. Luo (editor)
Miguel A. F. Sanjuan (editor)

Department of Physics, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, 28933 Mostoles, Madrid, Spain


Albert C.J. Luo (editor)

Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Southern Illinois University Ed-wardsville, IL 62026-1805, USA

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Voltage Synchronization in Arrays of Fractional-order Energy Storage Elements

Journal of Applied Nonlinear Dynamics 6(2) (2017) 193--223 | DOI:10.5890/JAND.2017.06.006

Tom T. Hartley

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Akron, Akron, OH 44325-3904, USA

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In this paper, the balancing of a collection of electric energy storage devices is considered. Specific devices discussed are capacitors, supercapacitors, and batteries. The balancing problem is formulated as a complex network with dynamic nodes. The connection problem is approached from a graph theory viewpoint and solved by using homogeneous or entangled graphs. The utility of this approach is demonstrated with several examples


The author wishes to acknowledge conversations with Carl Lorenzo at NASA Glenn Research Center, particularly for encouraging the applications of graph theory.


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