Skip Navigation Links
Discontinuity, Nonlinearity, and Complexity

Dimitry Volchenkov (editor), Dumitru Baleanu (editor)

Dimitry Volchenkov(editor)

Mathematics & Statistics, Texas Tech University, 1108 Memorial Circle, Lubbock, TX 79409, USA


Dumitru Baleanu (editor)

Cankaya University, Ankara, Turkey; Institute of Space Sciences, Magurele-Bucharest, Romania


Path Planning of Multi-Robot System Based on Tracking of External Stimuli

Discontinuity, Nonlinearity, and Complexity 11(1) (2022) 9--32 | DOI:10.5890/DNC.2022.03.002

Yousif Abdulwahab Kheerallah , Mofeed Turky Rashid, Abdulmuttalib Turky Rashid, Ali Fadhil Marhoon

Electrical Engineering Department, University of Basrah, Basrah, Iraq

Download Full Text PDF



In designing a leader-follower system, the main challenge is how to distinguish the leader among other moving robots. In this paper, a multi robot system will be designed in which the robots are attracting to a spotlight as their leader. This behavior is inspired from the collective motion of the Artemia aggregations. Two dynamical models will be designed based on the newton equation and its parameters can be estimated by two methods: first, depending on the physical feature of the robots, second, the using the least square estimation method. The performance of the proposed systems will be tested by: tracking the spotlight path, achieving formation and avoiding obstacles depending on the virtual circle method. For this purpose, several experiment will be implemented, which may be divided into two scenarios: without and with obstacles. Each scenario has three type of experiments, depending on the spotlight path, such as the straight, circle and zigzag path experiment. These tests will be implemented within the V-REP simulator and the results of the tests show perfect behavior of the robots during the path tracking and the obstacles avoiding.


  1. [1]  Pescovitz, D. (2005), robotbugs: handy, noticky, popularscience, accessed1aug. 2011. article/2004-05/robot-bugs-handy-not-icky.
  2. [2]  Beard, R.W., McLain, T.W., Nelson, D.B., Kingston, D., and Johanson, D. (2006), Decentralized cooperative aerial surveillance using fixed-wing miniature UAVs, Proceedings of the IEEE, 94(7), 1306-1324.
  3. [3]  Sharma, R., Beard, R.W., Taylor, C.N., and Quebe, S. (2011), Graph-based observability analysis of bearing-only cooperative localization, IEEE Transactions on Robotics, 28(2), 522-529.
  4. [4]  Abbaspour, A., Moosavian, S.A., and Alipour, K. (2015), Formation control and obstacle avoidance of cooperative wheeled mobile robots, International Journal of Robotics and Automation, 30(5), 418-428.
  5. [5]  Ni, J., Yang, X., Chen, J., and Yang, S.X. (2015), Dynamic bioinspired neural network for multi-robot formation control in unknown environments, International Journal of Robotics and Automation, 30(3), 256-266.
  6. [6]  Gu, D. and Wang, Z. (2009), Leader-follower flocking: algorithms and experiments, IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, 17(5), 1211-1219.
  7. [7]  Qian, D. and Xi, Y. (2018), Leader-follower formation maneuvers for multi-robot systems via derivative and integral terminal sliding mode, Applied Sciences, 8(7), 1045.
  8. [8]  Chen, P.C., Wan, J., Poo, A.N., and Ge, S.S. (2011), Formation and zoning control of multi-robot systems, International Journal of Robotics and Automation, 26(1), 35-48.
  9. [9]  Filella, A., Nadal, F., Sire, C., Kanso, E., and Eloy, C. (2018), Model of collective fish behavior with hydrodynamic interactions, Physical Review Letters, 120(19), 198101.
  10. [10]  Haque, M.A., Rahmani, A.R., and Egerstedt, M.B. (2011), Biologically inspired confinement of multi-robot systems, International Journal of Bio-Inspired Computation, 3(4), 213-224.
  11. [11]  Schultz, K.M., Passino, K.M., and Seeley, T.D. (2008), The mechanism of flight guidance in honeybee swarms: subtle guides or streaker bees?, Journal of Experimental Biology, 211(20), 3287-3295. DOI: 10.1242/jeb.018994.
  12. [12]  Wang, W., Liu, J., Xie, G., Wen, L., and Zhang, J. (2017), A bio-inspired electrocommunication system for small underwater robots, Bioinspiration $\&$ biomimetics, 12(3), p.036002.
  13. [13]  Rashid, M.T., Frasca, M., Ali, A.A., Ali, R.S., Fortuna, L., and Xibilia, M.G. (2012), Artemia swarm dynamics and path tracking, Nonlinear Dynamics, 68(4), 555-563.
  14. [14]  Haddadin, S., De Luca, A., and Albu-Sch\"{a}ffer, A. (2017), Robot collisions: A survey on detection, isolation, and identification, IEEE Transactions on Robotics, 33(6), 1292-1312.
  15. [15]  Li, X., Sun, H.X., Liao, L.J., and Song, J.Z. (2015), September. Simulation and Comparison Research of Lagrange and Kane Dynamics Modeling for The 4-DOF Modular Industrial Robot. In 5th International Conference on Advanced Design and Manufacturing Engineering (Vol. 39, pp. 251-254). Atlantis Press.
  16. [16]  Dhaouadi, R. and Hatab, A.A. (2013), Dynamic modelling of differential-drive mobile robots using lagrange and newton-euler methodologies: A unified framework, Advances in Robotics $\&$ Automation, 2(2), pp.1-7.
  17. [17] Rashid, M.T., Frasca, M., Ali, A.A., Ali, R.S., Fortuna, L., and Xibilia, M.G. (2012), Nonlinear model identification for Artemia population motion, Nonlinear Dynamics, 69(4), 2237-2243.
  18. [18]  Dudenhoeffer, D.D. and Jones, M.P. (2000), December. A formation behavior for large-scale micro-robot force deployment. In 2000 Winter Simulation Conference Proceedings (Cat. No. 00CH37165) (Vol. 1, pp. 972-982). IEEE.
  19. [19] Kuppan Chetty, R.M., Singaperumal, M., and Nagarajan, T. (2012), Behavior based multi robot formations with active obstacle avoidance based on switching control strategy. In Advanced Materials Research (Vol. 433, pp. 6630-6635).
  20. [20] de Croon, G.C., De Weerdt, E., De Wagter, C., Remes, B.D.W., and Ruijsink, R. (2011), The appearance variation cue for obstacle avoidance, IEEE Transactions on Robotics, 28(2), 529-534.
  21. [21]  Ibrahim, Z.Y., Rashid, A.T., and Marhoon, A.F. (2017), March. Path planning with polygonal obstacles avoidance based on the virtual circles of the visible vertices. In Proc. Of the 2nd Int. Sci. Conf (Vol. 1, p. 2).
  22. [22]  Kheerallah, Y.A., Marhoon, A.F., Rashid, M.T., and Rashid, A.T. (2019), Self-Organization of Multi-Robot System Based on External Stimuli, Iraqi Journal for Electrical $\&$ Electronic Engineering, 15(2).
  23. [23]  Rashid, M.T., Frasca, M., Ali, A.A., Ali, R.S., Fortuna, L., and Xibilia, M.G. (2012), Artemia swarm dynamics and path tracking, Nonlinear Dynamics, 68(4), 555-563.